Tag Archives: Web

Microsoft Wants To Port Its Web Browser to Linux

In December 2018, Microsoft announced its intention to abandon EdgeHTML as the browser’s rendering engine in favor of Chromium, the same rendering engine Google Chrome uses. In the months since the announcement, Microsoft has worked on versions of Edge for Windows 7, 8 and 10, as well as Xbox One, macOS, iOS and Android. Now, Microsoft has teased the possibility of Edge making its way to Linux as well. Sean Larkin, a member of the Edge development team, took to Twitter to solicit feedback from Linux developers:


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Swapnil Bhartiya has decades of experience covering emerging technologies and enterprise open source. His stories have appeared in a multitude of leading publications including CIO, InfoWorld, Network World, The New Stack, Linux Pro Magazine, ADMIN Magazine, HPE Insights, Raspberry Pi Geek Magazine, SweetCode, Linux For You, Electronics For You and more. He is also a science fiction writer and founder of TFiR.io.

How to Distro Hop With a Web Browser | Software

By Jack M. Germain

Aug 14, 2019 11:54 AM PT

Getting familiar with Linux up close and personal is easy to do with a free service provided by
DistroTest.net, a website that allows testing without ISO downloads or local installations.

Are you a wandering Linux distro hopper looking for a way to streamline the selection process? Are you a Windows or macOS user who wants to try Linux?

Linux has countless distributions and dozens of desktop environments. How can you choose?

Now you can find the perfect combination of distro and desktop without leaving the Web browser running on your current operating system. Just point that browser to DistroTest.net.

The DistroTest website is a relatively new online Linux distro-vetting system. It even includes some BSD offerings if you have a hankering to venture into an operating system that is similar to Linux.

Unique Testing Approach

DistroTest is the first online operating system tester that uses a live system similar to running a Linux bootable DVD or USB drive to bypass your installed OS. It has nearly the same look and feel as testing a Linux distro in live session without fully installing it in a sandboxed virtual environment like VirtualBox.

The experience can be easier and better. It runs directly within your Web browser. You do not have to leave your current computing activities behind to reboot the computer and take your chances with an unfamiliar process.

Nor do you have to download ISO files and burn them to a DVD or USB device. You also do not have to fiddle with arcane VirtualBox settings to get the live session to run or fully install properly.

Perhaps the best benefit from using DistroTest.net is the ability to check out Linux without disturbing a single thing about your current computer configuration. It is not a perfect solution — but it beats the alternatives.

Cloud-Like Service for Free

Using DistroTest is much like logging onto a cloud service with your home computer. You select the distros you want to try, and run them as if they were on your local hard drive.

The Linux and BSD distros available on DistroTest are fully functional. You can run all of the installed applications within each distro you test. You can change the default settings. When you close the live session and reload it, everything resorts to the default settings.

You pay nothing to test any number of distros. You can run them whenever you want. No restrictions are imposed.

I have become sort of a DistroTest nerd. I open several browser windows to the DistroTest website and run a variety of distros. I switch among browser tabs to compare features in a variety of distros running different desktops.

The goal behind DistroTest.net is to help you find the most suitable operating system for your purposes. This process lets you answer three critical questions about adopting and using the Linux (or BSD) operating systems:

  • Which distribution is the best one for me?
  • Which graphical interface do I want to use?
  • Which configuration options do I have with a particular distro choice?

Founder Andy Klemann and his administrative partner, Tobias Forster, want to help you answer those and a few other questions with their website. They built the website and the free distro testing tool to give server administrators, programmers and computing end-users a convenient way to find the best operating system for their specific needs.

DistroTest Overview

When you go to the DistroTest.net website, you see a black and gray page with an alphabetical listing of installed Linux and BSD distributions. The banner heading at the top of the landing page includes a motto that explains it all: “Test it before you hate it…”

alphabetical listing of every installed Linux and BSD distro available for testing on DistroTest.net.

The Home screen shows an alphabetical listing of every installed Linux and BSD distro available for testing on DistroTest.net. Click on a distro’s name to go to its detail page to start loading the distro.

– click image to enlarge –

You do not have to register. You do not have to provide your email address. You do not have to log onto the system. All you have to do is pick your distro and start testing it.

DistroTest currently hosts 743 versions of 233 operating systems. Those numbers increase regularly.

Navigating the website is fairly simple. On the top left of the page is the Main Menu. Under it are several links.

The Home link brings you to the landing page where the plain text alphabetical listing of all distros resides. Under that is the System link which takes you to a page with a more detailed alphabetical listing of installed distros. This list includes a small screenshot of the desktop and basic distro information.

Another link takes you to the New Systems page. It shows the latest additions to the installed testing inventory. It displays the same types of screenshots and basic details as the System link pages.

DistroTest.net, distro details page

The details page for each distroshows basic requirements, a thumbnail view of the desktop and a button to click to launch the selected distro.

– click image to enlarge –

How It Works

From any of the lists, click the name of the distro and look for a button that says “START.” Click it to load the desired operating system. The distro loads into a new window that opens on top of the Web browser window. You can resize it by dragging the corners.

The distro runs in a
QEMU-hosted window. QEMU is a generic open source machine emulator and virtualizer.

DistroTest.net, VNC-powered display window that overlays the Web browser

The distro selected for testing loads into a separate VNC-powered display window that overlays the Web browser. You can drag the window edges to resize the running distro.

– click image to enlarge –

In other words, within your browser, it enables a new connection to a hosted virtual machine (VM) that emulates a physical computer’s processor. This process enables the virtual machine to run a variety of guest operating systems using your Web browser as the display monitor.

The VM display is provided by a direct virtual network computing (VNC) connection. VNC is a graphical desktop-sharing system using the remote frame buffer protocol (RFB) to allow remote control of another computer. Multiple users may connect to the VNC server at the same time.

A button sits in the center of the left window edge of the running distro. Click it to slide out a menu with several options for controlling the VNC display window.

DistroTest.net display settings and other controls for the virtual environment.

A hidden panel slides out from the left edge of the VNC window to provide display settings and a few other controls for the virtual environment.

– click image to enlarge –

Developer Discussion

Andy Klemann had the idea of building a website to let anyone test other operating systems. He finally broached the topic with Tobias Forster, a fellow worker.

Once each workday, Klemann told him of the idea. Klemann is a computer guy with programming skills. Forster admits to being clueless about all things related to programming and operating systems. Still, the constant reminders of his coworker’s website idea intrigued him.

Forster finally gave in many months after first hearing about the idea. He agreed to help Klemann develop the unique project.

The pair faced numerous obstacles. The most challenging was the programming. Klemann had no recourse but to resolve those obstacles himself, Forster told LinuxInsider. His role was to provide system management, as well as advertising and support operations.

“The first big step was to create a functioning website. Then my part began, to add different operating systems to our system,” he said.

When they started in February 2017, the two partners had only an online server with limited capabilities. It allowed just a few systems to start at the same time.

The monthly hosted server fees were too expensive, with inadequate financial resources from their own bankroll and limited advertising revenue. Eventually, they got their own server and continued to upgrade it to meet increasing visitor attention.

“Now 100 systems can start at the same time,” said Forster.

Limited Resources

Klemann and Forster plan to keep DistroTest.net free to use. Since starting out, the two have financed everything themselves, according to Forster.

They do have some advertising on the website, but that generates enough money to support only one server. Recurring monthly bills include energy costs, website development and Internet connection fees for their server.

That leaves little money left over to expand the website’s functionality, noted Forster, so the distro experience is limited to what it is capable of doing in the live session environment.

“If a user would like to save some settings or personal files, then we have to add a login area for users. That would need a lot of space to save all the settings and personal files from every single user,” explained Forster. “We don’t have enough resources for that.”

For testing purposes, however, configuration settings and personal files remain enabled as long as the OS being tested is active. The data is deleted only after a system shutdown.

A Work in Progress

Using DistroTest is a fairly fluid experience that produces good results for its intended purpose of testing and comparing various operating systems. Much like trying out a distro running in live session from a DVD on your own hardware, you do not get an accurate feel for the speed of the distro’s performance if it actually were installed on your hard drive.

I have a very fast Internet connection speed through a hardwired network connection from my Internet Service Provider. Still, a slight latency exists with the VNC delivery through the Web browser.

The response delay is most noticeable when moving the mouse and clicking on an object within the virtual display. The result is a sluggishness while the mouse pointer takes a few fractions of seconds to catch up with the position the mouse already reached with my hand movement. Obviously, that hesitation does not exist elsewhere in the Web browser or with installed applications on my computer.

Another feature disconnect is the ability to add or remove applications in the distro being tested. DistroTest’s description makes it seem that you can install applications or remove already-installed programs within the virtual environment. That ability does not exist. No doubt, the limited virtual hard drive size of the QEMU session prevents that functionality.

When operating systems are fully installed in a VM setting, you can add/remove applications the same as you do with a bare-metal installation. However, that feature typically is missing when you run a live session of a distro from a DVD.

I tried that process with several distro choices on DistroTest.net with the same unsuccessful results. One possible reason for that failure is the lack of an Internet connection to the distros running in the VNC connection.

When I run live sessions from a DVD or from an ISO file directly loaded into a VirtualBox session, Internet connections are not an issue. Still, those live sessions do not support installing new software. Some of the same distros running through DistroTest’s VNC connection did establish an Internet connection when I tested them on my own hardware.

DistroTest.net VNC restart screen

Sometimes the connection to the VNC window or some other glitch prevents the distro from loading. Usually, closing the VNC window and restarting the loading process solves the problem.

– click image to enlarge –

Final Thoughts

Those minor issues aside, DistroTest.net is a very handy way to get a feel for different Linux and BSD offerings. It is convenient with few hassles.

The biggest advantage is being able to run any of the available operating systems within a browser session on your existing computer set up. Distro testing occurs in a browser-driven delivery. So it does not matter if your computer is running Microsoft Windows, macOS, another installed Linux OS or even a BSD distro.

DistroTest.net is a clever approach to making other operating system choices easily accessible to potential new users. Check it out.

Please share your Linux-testing experiences. Leave feedback in the Reader Comments section below.

Jack M. Germain has been an ECT News Network reporter since 2003. His main areas of focus are enterprise IT, Linux and open source technologies. He has written numerous reviews of Linux distros and other open source software.
Email Jack.

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Protejarea directoarelor și fișierelor pe un site, server web – Apache cu htpasswd

Protejarea directoarelor și fișierelor pe un site, server web – Apache cu htpasswd – Tutoriale it

Pentru a proteja un director accesibil prin interfața web, serverul web Apache ne oferă o posibilitate ușoară de adăgua un layer de securitate în plus.

Pentru a proteja cu utilizator (user) și parolă un director, prima dată trebuie să cream un fișier ascuns cu denumirea .htpasswd care trebuie să conțină un nume de utilizator și o parolă criptată. Acest fișier poate fi generat printr-o simplă comandă în linux, sau folosind o unealtă web online, – în caz dacă nu avem acces ssh la server, ci de exemplu, avem doar un cont de găzduire care poate fi accesat doar print-run panou de administrare sau FTP.

1. Generare fișier .htaccess din lina de comandă

htpasswd -c /var/www/site.com/.htpasswd numeutilizator


  • htpasswd – comanda cu care generaăm fișierul și parola
  • -c = create
  • /var/www/site.com/.htpasswd – directorul unde fișierul va fi creat (trebuie specificat calea absolută dacă nu ne aflăm tocmai în directorul unde vrem să creăm fișierul .htpasswd
  • numeutilizator = un nume de utilizator nou, la alegere

2. Protejarea directorului – script de adăugat în fișierul .htaccess

În directorul ales de noi pe care vrem să protejăm cu parolă, trebuie să creeăm sau să modificăm, dacă există deja, fișierul .htaccess.

DirectoryIndex .index.php
AuthType Basic
AuthName “Director proteja prin parola”
AuthUserFile /var/www/site.com/.htpasswd
Require valid-user


  • Important: AuthUserFile /var/www/site.com/.htpasswd – aici introducem calea absolută către fișierul htpasswd creat anterior

3. Protejarea unui fișier fără să protejăm tot directorul în care se află fișierul

<Files wp-login.php>
AuthUserFile /var/www/.htpasswd
AuthName “Fisier Privat”
AuthType Basic
require user utilizator ales


  • Scriptul de mai sus trebuie introdus tot în fișierul .htacces
  • Regulile de mai sus protejează fișierul wp-login.php din frameworkul WordPress, un fișier care foarte des este atacat cu atacuri de tip BruteForece – pentru a ghici o parolă cu care se poate intra în panoul de administrare
  • Este recomandat în același timp să folosim pe server și un program, care detectează atacurile BruteForce, (adică dacă cineva printr-un mod automatizat încearcă să ghicească o parolă, și apar multe nereușite de la o adresă de ip, atunci programul să închidă conexiunea serverului cu adresa de ip a atacatorului. Un astfel de protecție oferă de exemplu programul fail2ban, despre care puteți citi mai mult aici.

CopyRight © 2011 – 2019 – Tutorial Galaxy

Stadia, Web Browsers, GNOME 3.32 & Jetson Nano Dominated Linux Interest In March


During March on Phoronix was 299 original news articles and 22 featured Linux hardware reviews / benchmark specials in quite an exciting month, though looking ahead to April and Q2’2019 should be quite exciting as well.

The past month on Phoronix brought news of Google’s new “Stadia” Linux+Vulkan game streaming service, GNOME 3.32’s release with many performance improvements and fixes, the launch of the interesting $99 NVIDIA Jetson Nano, several browser benchmark articles with the Phoronix Test Suite now supporting the automated execution of browser-based tests, Linux 5.0 being released and Linux 5.1 kicking off, and much more.

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The most popular news for March included:

A Quick Look At The Firefox 66.0 vs. Chrome 73.0 Performance Benchmarks
Given the recent releases of Chrome 73 and Firefox 66, here are some fresh tests of these latest browsers on Linux under a variety of popular browser benchmarks.

ReactOS 0.4.11 “Open-Source Windows” Available With Big Kernel Improvements
ReactOS 0.4.11 is now available as the newest version of this open-source operating system re-implementing the Windows APIs with a focus on binary driver/application compatibility. With this being the first release since November’s ReactOS 0.4.10, there are a fair amount of changes to find in this new build.

AFS For Linux 5.1 Would Have Pleased Firefox/SQLite But Was Rejected As Untested Crap
The Andrew File-System (AFS) continues to evolve as a distributed file-system. Over the past year and a half there’s been a lot of activity to AFS in the mainline Linux kernel, including material slated for the in-development Linux 5.1 kernel but then Linus Torvalds ended up having to un-pull the changes.

A Look At The Many Improvements & New Features In GNOME 3.32
Barring any last minute delays, GNOME 3.32 is expected to ship today as the latest six-month update to this popular open-source desktop environment. GNOME 3.32 personally has me quite excited more so for the improvements — and bug fixes — over “new” features, but here is a look at some of what there is to get excited about with this latest update to the GNOME 3 desktop.

A DRM-Based Linux Oops Viewer Is Being Proposed Again – Similar To Blue Screen of Death
Back when kernel mode-setting (KMS) was originally talked about a decade ago one of the talked about possibilities of implementing a Linux “Blue Screen of Death” / better error handling when a dramatic system problem occurs. Such an implementation never really materialized but now in 2019 there is a developer pursuing new work in this area with a DRM-based kernel oops viewer.

Intel CPUs Reportedly Vulnerable To New “SPOILER” Speculative Attack
SPOILER is the newest speculative attack affecting Intel’s micro-architecture.

Orbital: A PlayStation 4 Emulator That Is Emulating The PS4’s AMD GPU Using Vulkan
Orbital is an open-source project providing a virtualization-based PlayStation 4 emulator that is still in its early stages but what interests us is its technical details including the use of Vulkan/SPIR-V.

The Faster & More Beautiful GNOME 3.32 Has Been Released
GNOME 3.32, which is codenamed “Taipei” given the location of GNOME.Asia Summit 2018, has been officially released on time.

Linux 5.1 Continues The Years-Long Effort Preparing For Year 2038
Linux 5.1 continues the massive undertaking in preparing the kernel for the Year 2038 problem.

Stadia Is Google’s Cloud Gaming Service Using Linux, Vulkan & A Custom AMD GPU
Google used the annual Game Developers Conference (GDC 2019) to officially unveil “Stadia” as their cloud-based game streaming service formerly known as Project Stream.

And the most popular featured articles:

The Fastest Linux Distributions For Web Browsing – Firefox + Chrome Benchmarks On Eight Distros
With now having WebDriver/Seleneium integration in PTS for carrying out browser benchmarks, we’ve been having fun running a variety of web browser benchmarks in different configurations. The latest is looking at the Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome web browser performance across eight Linux distribution releases (or nine if counting Fedora Workstation on both X.Org and Wayland) for looking at how the web browsing performance compares.

Ubuntu 19.04 Is Offering Some Performance Improvements Over Ubuntu 18.10, Comparison To Clear Linux
With the Ubuntu 19.04 “Disco Dingo” release less than one month away, we are getting ready for rolling out more tests of this next six-month installment to Ubuntu Linux. For those curious about the direction of Ubuntu 19.04’s performance, here are some very preliminary data points using the latest daily state of Ubuntu 19.04 right ahead of the beta period. Tests were done on a high-end Intel Core i9 9900K desktop as well as a Dell XPS Developer Edition notebook when comparing Ubuntu 19.04 to Ubuntu 18.10 and also tossing in Clear Linux as a performance reference point.

Benchmarking A 10-Core Tyan/IBM POWER Server For ~$300 USD
If you live in the EU and have been wanting to explore IBM POWER hardware on Linux, a load of Tyan Habanero servers recently became available through a German retailer for 269 EUR (~$306 USD) that comes equipped with a 10-core POWER8 processor. While not POWER9, it’s still an interesting Linux-capable beast and the price is unbeatable if you have been wanting to add POWER hardware to your collection. Phoronix reader Lauri Kasanen recently bought one of these IBM POWER servers at the 269 EUR price point and has shared thoughts on this server as well as some benchmarks. Here is Lauri’s guest post checking out this low-cost 2U IBM server.

NVIDIA Jetson Nano: A Feature-Packed Arm Developer Kit For $99 USD
One of the most interesting announcements out of NVIDIA’s 2019 GTC conference is the introduction of the Jetson Nano, NVIDIA’s latest Arm developer board featuring a Tegra SoC. This developer board is very different from the past Jetson boards in that it’s aiming for a very affordable price point: just $99 USD.

The 2019 Laptop Performance Cost To Linux Full-Disk Encryption
I certainly recommend that everyone uses full-disk encryption for their production systems, especially for laptops you may be bringing with you. In over a decade of using Linux full-disk encryption on my main systems, the overhead cost to doing so has fortunately improved with time thanks to new CPU instruction set extensions, optimizations within the Linux kernel, and faster SSD storage making the performance penalty even less noticeable. As it’s been a while since my last look at the Linux storage encryption overhead, here are some fresh results using a Dell XPS laptop running Ubuntu with/without LUKS full-disk encryption.

NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1660 Linux Benchmarks
Last week NVIDIA announced the GeForce GTX 1660 as the newest RTX-less Turing GPU but costing only $219+ USD. The GTX 1660 is a further trimmed down version of the GeForce GTX 1660 Ti that launched several weeks prior. After picking up an ASUS GeForce GTX 1660 Phoenix Edition, here are Linux OpenGL/Vulkan gaming benchmarks compared to a wide assortment of AMD Radeon and NVIDIA GeForce graphics cards under Ubuntu.

AMDGPU vs. Radeon Kernel Driver Performance On Linux 5.0 For AMD GCN 1.0/1.1 GPUs
A seldom advertised experimental feature of the AMDGPU kernel driver has long been the GCN 1.0/1.1 graphics support. By default these Southern Islands and Sea Islands graphics processors default to the Radeon DRM driver, but with some kernel command lime parameters can use the AMDGPU Direct Rendering Manager driver. The AMDGPU code path is better maintained since it’s used for all modern Radeon GPUs, using AMDGPU opens up Vulkan driver support, and possible performance benefits. It’s a while since last testing the Radeon vs. AMDGPU driver performance for these original GCN graphics cards, so here are some fresh benchmarks using the Linux 5.0 kernel and Mesa 19.1-devel.

Linux 4.19 Kernel Benchmarks On The Raspberry Pi
With the Raspberry Pi Foundation recently having begun rolling out a Linux 4.19-based kernel to Raspberry Pi boards, here are some benchmarks looking at the performance of two Raspberry Pi systems with the new Linux 4.19 kernel compared to its previous 4.14 kernel.

The Current Spectre / Meltdown Mitigation Overhead Benchmarks On Linux 5.0
With it being a little over one year since Spectre and Meltdown mitigations became public and with the Linux kernel today hitting the big “5.0” release, I decided to run some benchmarks of the current out-of-the-box performance hit as a result of the current default mitigation techniques employed by the Linux kernel. The default vs. unmitigated performance impact for Spectre/Meltdown are tested on an Intel Core i7 and Core i9 systems while there is also an AMD Ryzen 7 box for reference with its Spectre mitigation impact on Linux 5.0.

Intel P-State vs. CPUFreq Frequency Scaling Performance On The Linux 5.0 Kernel
It’s been a while since last running any P-State/CPUFreq frequency scaling driver and governor comparisons on Intel desktop systems, so given the recent release of Linux 5.0 I ran some tests for looking at the current state of affairs. Using an Intel Core i9 9900K I tested both the P-State and CPUFreq scaling drivers and their prominent governor options for seeing not only how the raw performance compares but also the system power consumption, CPU thermals, and performance-per-Watt.

The Greenfield Wayland Compositor Can Now Run Apps Directly In Your Web Browser


Greenfield is the nearly two year old effort providing an in-browser, HTML5 Wayland compositor. This open-source project has allowed for remote Wayland applications to run in browsers while running from remote hosts. Greenfield though can now run applications directly inside a user’s web browser via Web Worker threads.

Erik De Rijcke who masterminded Greenfield announced that applications can now run directly in browsers thanks to Web Workers. But in order to do so, the application must be using JavaScript or WebAssembly. Among other hinderances, this also currently requires a custom Wayland buffer protocol to be supported by the application as well. But once working, all the work is done in the client’s web browser rather than running remotely on a web server.

So far there are two very basic apps as an example via the demo site at preview.greenfield.app. At least from my quick testing, the experience is much better in Chrome than Firefox.

More details on this latest Greenfield work via the Wayland mailing list.