Tag Archives: ubuntu

Linux strace Command Tutorial for Beginners (8 Examples) | Linux.com


The Linux command line offers many tools that are helpful for software developers. One among them is strace, basics of which we’ll be discussing in this tutorial using some easy to understand examples.

But before we do that, it’s worth mentioning that all examples in this article have been tested on an Ubuntu 18.04 LTS machine.

Linux strace command

The strace command in Linux lets you trace system calls and signals. Following is its syntax:

strace [OPTIONS] command

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Antergos Softens Arch Learning Curve | Reviews


By Jack M. Germain

Oct 3, 2018 10:44 AM PT

Antergos Softens Arch Learning Curve

Antergos 8.9, released last month, is one of the better Arch Linux options. It is a powerful and modern computing platform, elegantly designed. It gives power users almost all they could desire.

Arch distros are not for Linux newcomers — but for seasoned Linux users who are new to Arch, Antergos has much to offer.

One of the biggest challenges in getting started with any Arch distro is surviving the installation. A secondary challenge with Arch is its software management processes. Arch users who overcome those challenges gain a solid performing Linux desktop with more layers of security and little or no software bloat.

Antergos is not a perfect solution, but it certainly is one that offers a reasonable expectation of success. That is something I can not say about typical Arch distros.

There are a few other exceptions, though. Together, they form the upper crust winners among Arch Linux entry-level distros. In addition to Antergos, this elite group includes
ArchMerge,
Anarchy and
Manjaro.

Antergos is hawked on the developer’s website as a distro for everyone, but it actually is not for everyone — at least not until it is installed and running.

That said, Antergos does provide a less frustrating user experience through the installation process. The support options and easy-to-use desktops make Antergos a good fit for most users from that point forward. Still, I highly recommend some preparation before jumping into the Antergos distro or any Arch-based release.

For example, you need a better handle on how Arch Linux works to use Antergos successfully, or to use other Arch-based distros with less frustration. This entails considerable background reading to have things make sense and minimize the frustration.

Also, check out the community’s active forum, its well-maintained
Wiki, and the
ArchWiki. You can get additional help from the
Antergos IRC Channel.

Arch World Primer

What had been the Cinnarch distro until 2013 morphed into Antergos. Cinnarch was a single-flavored Arch distro running the Cinnamon desktop environment. That desktop gave Cinnarch a comfortable user experience. Its bottom panel bar, familiar two-column menu, and other attributes resembled what most users were accustomed to seeing on a computer screen.

Spanish developer Alex Filgueira rebranded his distro from its former iteration. He expanded the reborn Arch-based distro to offer a more complete range of desktops. That expansion includes the now-default GNOME 3 desktop, along with Cinnamon, KDE Plasma 5, Xfce, Mate and Openbox.

“Antergos” is a Galician word used to link the past with the present. Making an Arch distro simpler to install was Filgueira’s focus. Near-manual installation routines that relied on a command line process had been the Arch norm. Other Arch-based distros used a combination of scripts to semi-automate the installation routine.

The Antergos Cnchi graphical installer project hosted on GitHub is the tool that smooths out the installation process considerably. Cnchi is still in beta and has a few glitches, depending on your hardware and the desktop you select. Still, it does a better job than most other Arch-based distros.

About Antergos

The prime directive for all things Arch is simplicity, modernity and pragmatism. Added to that is a focus on centrality and versatility. It seems that in general, the founding principle of simplicity simply failed when it comes to installing most Arch Linux systems.

Antergos comes much closer to obeying that initial commandment, though. Numix is another system tool that helps Antergos to honor the founding articles that set out what Arch is supposed to be. Numix brings a distinctive design of icons and themes, for a unique look and feel in Antergos.

In true Arch fashion, Antergos relies on rolling releases. Once you install Antergos and have it running well, you never have to repeat the process. Updates roll in as they are ready, so the operating system always is loaded with the latest releases.

There are no point releases or reinstallation mandates. That provides a shining example of what simplicity should be in all Linux distros.

Getting Started

There are two download options. A Live Install Image includes a fully working environment that allows you to test how Antergos performs. The Minimal Install Image includes only what is required to run the installer and thus offers a much smaller initial download.


Antergos 18.9 installation screen

Within the live DVD session, you can start the installation process only from this spash screen.


After loading the live DVD, you click one button to run Antergos in live mode if you want to check out its performance and hardware compatibility. You click a second button to install it. If you decide to install Antergos, make sure to run the live session first, so you can establish an Internet connection. You must be connected to install this distro. You then can return to the splash screen to install the OS.

The ISO file that you download to burn the installation DVD contains all six desktop options. It sort of implies that you can load each one as part of the live session testing phase.

However, that is not the case. The Live session — whether you load it to test Antergos or install it — runs only the default GNOME 3 desktop. If you decide to install Antergos, the installer offers six desktop environment options once the installation routine gets under way.

Tread Carefully

Another tipping point is how to start an installation. The ISO is for direct installation. Typically, Arch distros do not have fully functional live session environments. Those that do require you to exit the live session environment to start the install process externally.

The “simplified” distros I mentioned above do provide the ability to fully test the Arch distros. When you boot into a live session, connect the PC to the Internet and wait for the installer to open automatically. Otherwise, it will not update and open properly.

If a glitch occurs, do not try to restart the installation process. The only cure is to reboot the PC. Then start the installation routine again.

Generally, the installation routine takes some time to complete. Be patient. Cnchi has to fetch the latest packages from the Internet. That burden is increased if you agree to the options to install proprietary graphics drivers, Flash add-ons and alternative Web browsers.

Updated Impressions

I last did a full-blown, hands-on test run of Antergos in March 2015. I have dabbled in a variety of its desktop options over the years since its Cinnarch days.

Antergos has not changed much in look and feel, regardless of which desktop is at play. To a point, that is a good thing. Stability and reliability continue to be staples of this Arch distro.


Antergos 18.9 background images and color patterns

Antergos includes a nice collection of background images and color patterns.


However, I was less impressed this time around due to what struck me as complacency. Once the rather smooth installation was complete and the out-of-the-box reliability was evident, I found myself asking, “Is all there is?”

Like most Linux families — Arch, Debian, RPM-based, Ubuntu-based, Fedora-based or openSuse-based, to name a few — too many Linux distros look and play the same. In most cases, the desktop environments are all too lookalike.

That description is most true in working with the GNOME desktop. Since GNOME is still the default desktop still for Antergos, I installed that version for this review.

Arch’s other telltale traits fall to the background. GNOME is what you stare at most often while using the OS. Much like Arch Linux is Arch, so is GNOME desktop just Plane Jane uninviting GNOME.


Antergos 18.9 desktop

The GNOME 3 desktop is the default environment, but it lacks any distro-specific tweaking to make it unique or better. The same is true for the other five desktop options.


To make Antergos Linux a step better than other Arch-based distros running GNOME 3, the developer needs to build in some innovative tweaks to make the desktop’s integration just a tad bit more, umm, improved.

I have the same recommendation for Antergos’ other desktop options. This is clearly not something that all Linux developers do, but tweaking the desktop so that it is a unique part of the distro characteristics gives adopters a reason to stay with one distro.

Reasons to Go With Antergos

Desktop blandness aside, you should consider the reasons to select Antergos over other Arch Linux options. Perhaps the most important reason is that Antergos is 100 percent functional out of the box if you do not start off with the minimal installation ISO.

The preinstalled software is a small collection — that keeps bloat from setting in. You get the basics that include a video player, music software, text editor and other essentials, depending on the desktop environment.

You add to what you want from there. Additional software can be installed using the Pacman package manager. This is one of the best package managers available among Linux distributions.

Antergos uses the Arch Linux repositories. They contain the newest versions of all the software. The Arch Linux Archive is one of the best-maintained repositories.

Plus, you get access to more of the latest software additions that are not yet vetted into the official Arch repository through the Arch User Repository. This is a community-driven repository for Arch users.

Antergos comes with the Chromium Web browser by default. It runs Linux kernel 4.18.5.

Bottom Line

If you are already familiar with the Arch Linux family but want a quicker installation method, you will appreciate what Antergos brings to the Linux table. Those who are less familiar with the Arch Linux methodologies are sure to be much less enthusiastic about using the OS.

This distro gives you some of the most popular desktop environments all in one download. If you are clueless about a preferred desktop, though, you will be stuck staring at the default GNOME option. Antergos does not provide users with an easy switching tool to change the desktop option. The live session ISO does not let you try out any other option either.

Want to Suggest a Review?

Is there a Linux software application or distro you’d like to suggest for review? Something you love or would like to get to know?

Please
email your ideas to me, and I’ll consider them for a future Linux Picks and Pans column.

And use the Reader Comments feature below to provide your input!


Jack M. Germain has been an ECT News Network reporter since 2003. His main areas of focus are enterprise IT, Linux and open source technologies. He has written numerous reviews of Linux distros and other open source software.
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Debian, Ubuntu, and Other Distros are Leaving U… » Linux Magazine


Linux is known for a rapid response on fixing problems with the kernel, but the individual distros often take their time with pushing changes to users. Now, one of the researchers for Google Project Zero, Jann Horn, is warning that major distros like Debian and Ubuntu are leaving their users vulnerable.

“Linux distributions often don’t publish distribution kernel updates very frequently. For example, Debian stable ships a kernel based on 4.9, but as of 2018-09-26, this kernel was last updated 2018-08-21. Similarly, Ubuntu 16.04 ships a kernel that was last updated 2018-08-27,” he wrote in a blog post.

According to Horn, the delay means that users of these distributions remain vulnerable to known exploits. Horn describes a case in which, “a security issue was announced on the oss-security mailing list on 2018-09-18, with a CVE allocation on 2018-09-19, making the need to ship new distribution kernels to users more clear. Still: As of 2018-09-26, both Debian and Ubuntu (in releases 16.04 and 18.04) track the bug as unfixed.”

Horn is also critical of Android, which only ships security updates once a month. “…when a security-critical fix is available in an upstream stable kernel, it can still take weeks before the fix is actually available to users – especially if the security impact is not announced publicly,” he wrote.

Greg Kroah-Hartman has also been critical of distributions that don’t push these changes to users. Horn warned, “The fix timeline shows that the kernel’s approach to handling severe security bugs is very efficient at quickly landing fixes in the git master tree, but leaves a window of exposure between the time an upstream fix is published and the time the fix actually becomes available to users – and this time window is sufficiently large that a kernel exploit could be written by an attacker in the meantime.”

Source:

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[2]



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Linux pmap Command Tutorial for Beginners (5 Examples) | Linux.com


Linux command line offers a lot of tools that help you know more about processes that are currently active in your system. One such utility is pmap, which reports the process memory map. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basics of pmap using some easy to understand examples.

But before we do that, it’s worth mentioning all examples here have been tested on an Ubuntu 18.04 LTS machine.

Linux pmap command

The pmap command in Linux lets you see the memory map of one or more than one processes. Following is its syntax:

pmap [options] pid […]

And here’s how the tool’s man page explains it:

The pmap command reports the memory map of a process or processes.

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New MakuluLinux Deserves a Spot in the Majors | Reviews


By Jack M. Germain

Sep 27, 2018 5:00 AM PT

The
MakuluLinux distro is now something brand new and very inviting.

MakuluLinux developer Jacque Montague Raymer on Thursday announced the first major release of this year. It is a whole lot more than a mere upgrade of distro packages. MakuluLinux Series 15 offers much more than new artwork and freshly repainted themes and desktop styles.

If you crave a Linux OS that is fresh and independent, MakuluLinux is a must-try Linux solution. The distro itself has been around for a few years and has grown considerably along the way. When it arrived on the Linux scene in 2015, its different approach to implementing Linux OS features disrupted the status quo.

I have reviewed six MakuluLinux releases since 2015. Each one involved a different desktop option. Each one introduced new features and improvements that gave MakuluLinux the potential to challenge long-time major Linux distro communities. Series 15 makes it clear that this South Vietnam-based Linux developer is no longer a small player in the Linux distro game.

MakuluLinux Series 15 is not an update of last year’s editions. It is a complete
rip-and-replace rebuild. Series 15 consists of three separate Linux distros: LinDoz is available now; Flash will be released by the end of October; and Core will debut between the end of November and mid-December.

I do mean three *different* distros — not desktop environments you choose within an edition. The first two offerings, LinDoz and Flash, are not new per se. They are rebuilt reincarnations of previous versions. However, LinDoz and Flash are completely reworked from the ground up to give you several big surprises.

MakuluLinux Core, however, is something entirely new. In fact, Raymer had not divulged Core’s development until reaching out to LinuxInsider to discuss the LinDoz release. His plan is to spotlight each distro as a separate entity.


MakuluLinux spin-wheel style menu

The centerpiece of MakuluLinux Core’s innovative, homegrown user interface is the spin-wheel style circular menu display.


Makulu Unwrapped

Raymer and his developer team spent the last two years building a new base for MakuluLinux Series 15. Their goal is to surpass the functionality of prime competitors such as Linux Mint, Ubuntu and Manjaro, according to Raymer.

All three of the Series 15 editions feature a redesign of the original Ubuntu-based LinDoz OS. The developers spent a major portion of their time over the last two years applying many changes. First, they tackled revamping the LinDoz Ubuntu foundation.


MakuluLinux Series 15 LinDoz Edition

MakuluLinux’s Series 15 LinDoz Edition blends both Microsoft Windows traits and Linux functionality into one OS.


It is “possibly the fastest and most stable base floating around the net at the moment, not to mention it is near bug-free,” Raymer told LinuxInsider. “All three of the builds going live this year will feature this base.”

The new base gets its primary updates from both Debian and Makulu directly. The new strategy is not to borrow the base from Debian or Ubuntu like other big developers. Makulu’s team chose to build its own base instead.

“This way we don’t inherit any known bugs that plague Debian or Ubuntu builds, and since we built the base we know what’s going on inside it,” said Raymer.

It also allowed the developers to optimize builds for speed and stability, he added.

That planning shows. I have been sampling the almost daily builds for the last few weeks. Each one offers a higher level of performance over the previous releases. Stability and speed were evident throughout the process.

What’s Inside

The new base for MakuluLinux resulted from an intense study of the competition, noted Raymer. The developers were determined to surpass Ubuntu, Linux Mint — which borrows from the Ubuntu base, except for its separate Linux Mint Debian Edition — and Manjara Linux, which is a derivative of Arch Linux.

After daily hands-on exposure to the end results of the base changes, I can vouch for the developer team’s success. Clearly, the team members had their priorities in the correct order. The new base is lightning fast. It is also more secure.

Security in Linux is a relative term. The real issue with Linux OSes is how secure you want to make your system. Some distros have higher levels of security that go beyond the upstream patching and package tweaks.

Raymer built in up-to-date security patches along with a reliable firewall and handy virus scanner out of the box. Typical Linux adopters normally do not think about deploying firewalls and virus scanners. Having those two features built into the OS adds to your feeling of safety and instills confidence.

The new base and system structure support a wide range of hardware out of the box. My test bench is stocked with a few old Windows clunkers and some very new rigs. I did not have to give a thought to installing drivers and fiddling with graphics fixes. The audio gear and varied printers and other connected devices I use every day just worked.

One of Raymer’s big demands was a bug-free release. I give him huge credit. I doubt that software can exist without bugs. MakuluLinux does a damn good job of proving that assessment wrong.

Developers can never test every piece of hardware in the wild. That is where the community of build testers and early adopters comes to the rescue. I’m guessing that this large gang of testers found enough bugs in the mix of builds to get a higher percentage of code fixed than generally happens elsewhere.

LinDoz Primer

I always liked the sarcasm hidden in the LinDoz name for the former MakuluLinux flagship OS. It is an ideal alternative to the actual Microsoft Windows platform. However, It does not try to be the next great Windows clone on Linux.

LinDoz does offer the Windows look and feel, thanks to its similar themes. That helps your comfort zone. Still, we are talking Linux here. LinDoz does what the proprietary giant cannot do. LinDoz is highly configurable beyond the look and feel of the themes.


MakuluLinux LinDoz

MakuluLinux LinDoz has vivid backgrounds, a classic bottom panel, and a preconfigured workspace switcher applet with a nice collection of desktop desklets.


For instance, LinDoz has a unique menu. It blends both Windows and Linux functionality into one OS. If you are a transplant from Windows World, you will be comfy in the familiar LinDoz surroundings. The Linux World part of the computing experience is so well integrated that you actually enjoy a new and better computing platform that does not come loaded with frustration and useless software.

LinDoz uses a nicely tweaked version of the Cinnamon desktop. I recently reviewed Linux Mint’s Debian-based release, Linux Mint Debian Edition or LMDE. I felt right at home with LinDoz Series 15. It uses a combination of the Debian repositories and its own in-house Makulu repository. Raymer just missed debuting the new LinDoz on Debian ahead of Linux Mint’s
release by a matter of weeks.

Flashy and Fast and Splashy

If you fancy a more traditional Linux setting, Flash has much going for it to keep you happy. It runs on the Xfce desktop, only you will swear it is something newer thanks to the snappy integration with other MakuluLinux trappings.


MakuluLinux Flash Edition

MakuluLinux Flash Edition running on the Xfce desktop is so well tweaked it looks and feels like something new. Flash is fast and splashy.


For example, the desktop has transparency that gives it a modern flavor. The Compiz OpenGL compositing manager is built in, for on-the-fly window dressing and fancy animations. With 3D graphics hardware, you can create fast compositing desktop effects like a minimization animation.

The Flash OS has the old style bottom panel with menu buttons on both sides. If you prefer the old Linux layout still around from 30 years ago, this OS is for you. Unlike many aging Linux distros, though, there is nothing old or sluggish about Makulu Flash. It is fast and splashy.

I especially like how I can turn the Compiz effects off or on with a single click. Flash also exhibits a modern flair that takes the Xfce desktop to a higher level of functionality. You can configure the settings to activate the hot corners features to add actions.

New Core Flagship

What could become the most inviting option in the MakuluLinux OS family — when it becomes available — is Makulu Core. Raymer has this third release positioned to be the new “core” Makulu offering.

Unlike the other two MakuluLinux distros in the Series 15 releases, the Core Edition is a dock-based desktop environment. This approach is innovative and attractive. A bottom dock houses the favorite applications. A side dock along the lower right vertical edge of the screen holds system icons and notifications.

For me, the most exciting eye candy that the Core Edition offers is its dynamic animations that put into play a new way to interact with the OS. The developers forked the classic Xfce desktop as a framework for designing the new Core desktop.

The user interface includes a dual menu and dual dock. It is mouse driven with a touchscreen gesture system.

For instance, the main menu appears in a circular design displaying icons for each software category. Fly over any icon in the circular array to have the contents of that category hang in a larger circle layered over the main menu display in the center of the screen.

The main menu is also based on hot corners. You trigger them by mousing into the top left or bottom left corners of the screen.

MakuluLinux Core is ready to grow and adapt. It is a solid platform for traditional Linux hardware. It will support new computing tools, according to Raymer.

For example, Core will work with touchscreens, and with foldable laptops that turn into tablets. Core will incorporate a way for both to work with ease and without the user having to make any changes on his side.

“We also wanted to make the OS feel a little like Linux, macOS and Microsoft Windows all at the same time, yet offer something new and fresh. This is how we came up with the dual menus, dual dock system. It feels comfortable to use, and it looks and feels a little like everything,” Raymer said.

Bottom Line

Since LinDoz is now officially available for download, I will wrap up with a focus on what makes MakuluLinux LinDoz a compelling computing option. I no doubt will follow the Flash and the Core edition releases when those two distros are available in final form.

One of the more compelling attributes that LinDoz offers is its beautiful form. It is appealing to see. Its themes and wallpapers are stunning.

For the first time, you will be able to install the new LinDoz once and forget about it. LinDoz is now a semi-rolling release. It receives patches directly from Debian Testing and MakuluLinux.

Essential patches are pushed to the system as needed.

Caution: The LinDoz ISO is not optimized for virtual machines. I tried it and was disappointed. It loads but is extremely slow and mostly nonresponsive. Hopefully, the developer will optimize the ISO swoon to provide an additional option for testing or using this distro.

However, I burned the ISO to a DVD and had no issues with the performance in live session. I installed LinDoz to a hard drive with very satisfying results.

Want to Suggest a Review?

Is there a Linux software application or distro you’d like to suggest for review? Something you love or would like to get to know?

Please
email your ideas to me, and I’ll consider them for a future Linux Picks and Pans column.

And use the Reader Comments feature below to provide your input!


Jack M. Germain has been an ECT News Network reporter since 2003. His main areas of focus are enterprise IT, Linux and open source technologies. He has written numerous reviews of Linux distros and other open source software.
Email Jack.





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