Tag Archives: ubuntu

Arch Anywhere Is Dead, Long Live Anarchy Linux | Linux.com


Arch Anywhere was a distribution aimed at bringing Arch Linux to the masses. Due to a trademark infringement, Arch Anywhere has been completely rebranded to Anarchy Linux. And I’m here to say, if you’re looking for a distribution that will enable you to enjoy Arch Linux, a little Anarchy will go a very long way. This distribution is seriously impressive in what it sets out to do and what it achieves. In fact, anyone who previously feared Arch Linux can set those fears aside… because Anarchy Linux makes Arch Linux easy.

Let’s face it; Arch Linux isn’t for the faint of heart. The installation alone will turn off many a new user (and even some seasoned users). That’s where distributions like Anarchy make for an easy bridge to Arch. With a live ISO that can be tested and then installed, Arch becomes as user-friendly as any other distribution.

Anarchy Linux goes a little bit further than that, however. Let’s fire it up and see what it does.

The installation

The installation of Anarchy Linux isn’t terribly challenging, but it’s also not quite as simple as for, say, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, or Elementary OS. Although you can run the installer from within the default graphical desktop environment (Xfce4), it’s still much in the same vein as Arch Linux. In other words, you’re going to have to do a bit of work—all within a text-based installer.

To start, the very first step of the installer (Figure 1) requires you to update the mirror list, which will likely trip up new users.

From the options, select Download & Rank New Mirrors. Tab down to OK and hit Enter on your keyboard. You can then select the nearest mirror (to your location) and be done with it. The next few installation screens are simple (keyboard layout, language, timezone, etc.). The next screen should surprise many an Arch fan. Anarchy Linux includes an auto partition tool. Select Auto Partition Drive (Figure 2), tab down to Ok, and hit Enter on your keyboard.

You will then have to select the drive to be used (if you only have one drive this is only a matter of hitting Enter). Once you’ve selected the drive, choose the filesystem type to be used (ext2/3/4, btrfs, jfs, reiserfs, xfs), tab down to OK, and hit Enter. Next you must choose whether you want to create SWAP space. If you select Yes, you’ll then have to define how much SWAP to use. The next window will stop many new users in their tracks. It asks if you want to use GPT (GUID Partition Table). This is different than the traditional MBR (Master Boot Record) partitioning. GPT is a newer standard and works better with UEFI. If you’ll be working with UEFI, go with GPT, otherwise, stick with the old standby, MBR. Finally select to write the changes to the disk, and your installation can continue.

The next screen that could give new users pause, requires the selection of the desired installation. There are five options:

  • Anarchy-Desktop

  • Anarchy-Desktop-LTS

  • Anarchy-Server

  • Anarchy-Server-LTS

  • Anarchy-Advanced

If you want long term support, select Anarchy-Desktop-LTS, otherwise click Anarchy-Desktop (the default), and tab down to Ok. Click Enter on your keyboard. After you select the type of installation, you will get to select your desktop. You can select from five options: Budgie, Cinnamon, GNOME, Openbox, and Xfce4.
Once you’ve selected your desktop, give the machine a hostname, set the root password, create a user, and enable sudo for the new user (if applicable). The next section that will raise the eyebrows of new users is the software selection window (Figure 3). You must go through the various sections and select which software packages to install. Don’t worry, if you miss something, you can always installed it later.

Once you’ve made your software selections, tab to Install (Figure 4), and hit Enter on your keyboard.

Once the installation completes, reboot and enjoy Anarchy.

Post install

I installed two versions of Anarchy—one with Budgie and one with GNOME. Both performed quite well, however you might be surprised to see that the version of GNOME installed is decked out with a dock. In fact, comparing the desktops side-by-side and they do a good job of resembling one another (Figure 5).

My guess is that you’ll find all desktop options for Anarchy configured in such a way to offer a similar look and feel. Of course, the second you click on the bottom left “buttons”, you’ll see those similarities immediately disappear (Figure 6).

Regardless of which desktop you select, you’ll find everything you need to install new applications. Open up your desktop menu of choice and select Packages to search for and install whatever is necessary for you to get your work done.

Why use Arch Linux without the “Arch”?

This is a valid question. The answer is simple, but revealing. Some users may opt for a distribution like Arch Linux because they want the feeling of “elitism” that comes with using, say, Gentoo, without having to go through that much hassle. With regards to complexity, Arch rests below Gentoo, which means it’s accessible to more users. However, along with that complexity in the platform, comes a certain level of dependability that may not be found in others. So if you’re looking for a Linux distribution with high stability, that’s not quite as challenging as Gentoo or Arch to install, Anarchy might be exactly what you want. In the end, you’ll wind up with an outstanding desktop platform that’s easy to work with (and maintain), based on a very highly regarded distribution of Linux.

That’s why you might opt for Arch Linux without the Arch.

Anarchy Linux is one of the finest “user-friendly” takes on Arch Linux I’ve ever had the privilege of using. Without a doubt, if you’re looking for a friendlier version of a rather challenging desktop operating system, you cannot go wrong with Anarchy.

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.

How to Manage PGP and SSH Keys with Seahorse | Linux.com


Security is tantamount to peace of mind. After all, security is a big reason why so many users migrated to Linux in the first place. But why stop with merely adopting the platform, when you can also employ several techniques and technologies to help secure your desktop or server systems.

One such technology involves keys—in the form of PGP and SSH. PGP keys allow you to encrypt and decrypt emails and files, and SSH keys allow you to log into servers with an added layer of security.

Sure, you can manage these keys via the command-line interface (CLI), but what if you’re working on a desktop with a resplendent GUI? Experienced Linux users may cringe at the idea of shrugging off the command line, but not all users have the same skill set and comfort level there. Thus, the GUI!

In this article, I will walk you through the process of managing both PGP and SSH keys through the Seahorse GUI tool. Seahorse has a pretty impressive feature set; it can:

  • Encrypt/decrypt/sign files and text.

  • Manage your keys and keyring.

  • Synchronize your keys and your keyring with remote key servers.

  • Sign and publish keys.

  • Cache your passphrase.

  • Backup both keys and keyring.

  • Add an image in any GDK supported format as a OpenPGP photo ID.

  • Create, configure, and cache SSH keys.

For those that don’t know, Seahorse is a GNOME application for managing both encryption keys and passwords within the GNOME keyring. But fear not, Seahorse is available for installation on numerous desktops. And since Seahorse is found in the standard repositories, you can open up your desktop’s app store (such as Ubuntu Software or Elementary OS AppCenter) and install. To do this, locate Seahorse in your distribution’s application store and click to install. Once you have Seahorse installed, you’re ready to start making use of a very handy tool.

Let’s do just that.

PGP Keys

The first thing we’re going to do is create a new PGP key. As I said earlier, PGP keys can be used to encrypt email (with tools like Thunderbird’s Enigmail or the built-in encryption function with Evolution). A PGP key also allows you to encrypt files. Anyone with your public key will be able to decrypt those emails or files. Without a PGP key, no can do.

Creating a new PGP key pair is incredibly simple with Seahorse. Here’s what you do:

  1. Open the Seahorse app

  2. Click the + button in the upper left corner of the main pane

  3. Select PGP Key (Figure 1)

  4. Click Continue

  5. When prompted, type a full name and email address

  6. Click Create

While creating your PGP key, you can click to expand the Advanced key options section, where you can configure a comment for the key, encryption type, key strength, and expiration date (Figure 2).

The comment section is very handy to help you remember a key’s purpose (or other informative bits).
With your PGP created, double-click on it from the key listing. In the resulting window, click on the Names and Signatures tab. In this window, you can sign your key (to indicate you trust this key). Click the Sign button and then (in the resulting window) indicate how carefully you’ve checked this key and how others will see the signature (Figure 3).

Signing keys is very important when you’re dealing with other people’s keys, as a signed key will ensure your system (and you) you’ve done the work and can fully trust an imported key.

Speaking of imported keys, Seahorse allows you to easily import someone’s public key file (the file will end in .asc). Having someone’s public key on your system means you can decrypt emails and files sent to you from them. However, Seahorse has suffered a known bug for quite some time. The problem is that Seahorse imports using gpg version one, but displays with gpg version two. This means, until this long-standing bug is fixed, importing public keys will always fail. If you want to import a public PGP key into Seahorse, you’re going to have to use the command line. So, if someone has sent you the file olivia.asc, and you want to import it so it can be used with Seahorse, you would issue the command gpg2 –import olivia.asc. That key would then appear in the GnuPG Keys listing. You can open the key, click the I trust signatures button, and then click the Sign this key button to indicate how carefully you’ve checked the key in question.

SSH Keys

Now we get to what I consider to be the most important aspect of Seahorse—SSH keys. Not only does Seahorse make it easy to generate an SSH key, it makes it easy to send that key to a server, so you can take advantage of SSH key authentication. Here’s how you generate a new key and then export it to a remote server.

  1. Open up Seahorse

  2. Click the + button

  3. Select Secure Shell Key

  4. Click Continue

  5. Give the key a description

  6. Click Create and Set Up

  7. Type and verify a passphrase for the key

  8. Click OK

  9. Type the address of the remote server and a remote login name found on the server (Figure 4)

  10. Type the password for the remote user

  11. Click OK

The new key will be uploaded to the remote server and is ready to use. If your server is set up for SSH key authentication, you’re good to go.

Do note, during the creation of an SSH key, you can click to expand the Advanced key options and configure Encryption Type and Key Strength (Figure 5).

A must-use for new Linux users

Any new-to-Linux user should get familiar with Seahorse. Even with its flaws, Seahorse is still an incredibly handy tool to have at the ready. At some point, you will likely want (or need) to encrypt or decrypt an email/file, or manage secure shell keys for SSH key authentication. If you want to do this, while avoiding the command line, Seahorse is the tool to use.

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Install AWFFull web server log analysis application on ubuntu 17.10


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AWFFull is a web server log analysis program based on “The Webalizer”.AWFFull produces usage statistics in HTML format for viewing with a browser. The results are presented in both columnar and graphical format, which facilitates interpretation. Yearly, monthly, daily and hourly usage statistics are presented, along with the ability to display usage by site, URL, referrer, user agent (browser), user name,search strings, entry/exit pages, and country (some information may not be available if not present in the log file being processed).

AWFFull supports CLF (common log format) log files, as well as Combined log formats as defined by NCSA and others, and variations of these which it attempts to handle intelligently. In addition, AWFFull also supports wu-ftpd xferlog formatted log files, allowing analysis of ftp servers, and squid proxy logs. Logs may also be compressed, via gzip.

If a compressed log file is detected, it will be automatically uncompressed while it is read. Compressed logs must have the standard gzip extension of .gz.

Changes from Webalizer

AWFFull is based on the Webalizer code and has a number of large and small changes. These include:

o Beyond the raw statistics: Making use of published formulae to provide additional insights into site usage.

o GeoIP IP Address look-ups for more accurate country detection.

o Resizable graphs.

o Integration with GNU gettext allowing for ease of translations.Currently 32 languages are supported.

o Display more than 12 months of the site history on the front page.

o Additional page count tracking and sort by same.

o Some minor visual tweaks, including Geolizer’s use of Kb, Mb etc for Volumes.

o Additional Pie Charts for URL counts, Entry and Exit Pages, and Sites.

o Horizontal lines on graphs that are more sensible and easier to read.

o User Agent and Referral tracking is now calculated via PAGES not HITS.

o GNU style long command line options are now supported (eg –help).

o Can choose what is a page by excluding “what isn’t” vs the original “what is” method.

o Requests to the site being analysed are displayed with the matching referring URL.

o A Table of 404 Errors, and the referring URL can be generated.

o An external CSS file can be used with the generated html.

o Manual performance optimisation of the config file is now easier with a post analysis summary output.

o Specified IP’s & Addresses can be assigned to a given country.

o Additional Dump options for detailed analysis with other tools.

o Lotus Domino v6 logs are now detected and processed.

Install awffull on ubuntu 17.10

sudo apt-get install awffull

Configuring AWFFULL

You have to edit awffull config file at /etc/awffull/awffull.conf. If you have multiple virtual websites running in the same machine, you can make several copies of the default config file.

sudo vi /etc/awffull/awffull.conf

Make sure the following lines are there

LogFile /var/log/apache2/access.log.1
OutputDir /var/www/html/awffull

Save and exit the file

You can run the awffull config using the following command

awffull -c [your config file name]

This will create all the required files under /var/www/html/awffull directory so you can access your webserver stats using http://serverip/awffull/

You should see similar to the following screen

If you have more site and you can automate the process using shell script and cron job.

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How to Use DockerHub | Linux.com


In the previous articles, we learned the basics of Docker terminology,  how to install Docker on desktop Linux, macOS, and Windows, and how to create container images and run them on your system. In this last article in the series, we will talk about using images from DockerHub and publishing your own images to DockerHub.

First things first: what is DockerHub and why is it important? DockerHub is a cloud-based repository run and managed by Docker Inc. It’s an online repository where Docker images  can be published and used by other users. There are both public and private repositories. If you are a company, you can have a private repository for use within your own organization, whereas public images can be used by anyone.

You can also use official Docker images that are published publicly. I use many such images, including for my test WordPress installations, KDE plasma apps, and more. Although we  learned last time how to create your own Docker images, you don’t have to. There are thousands of images published on DockerHub for you to use. DockerHub is hardcoded into Docker as the default registry, so when you run the docker pull command against any image, it will be downloaded from DockerHub.

Download images from Docker Hub and run locally

Please check out the previous articles in the series to get started. Then, once you have Docker running on your system, you can open the terminal and run:

$ docker images

This command will show all the docker images currently on your system. Let’s say you want to deploy Ubuntu on your local machine; you would do:

$ docker pull ubuntu

If you already have Ubuntu image on your system, the command will automatically update that image to the latest version. So, if you want to update the existing images, just run the docker pull command, easy peasy. It’s like apt-get upgrade without any muss and fuss.

You already know how to run an image:

$ docker run -it <image name>

$ docker run -it ubuntu

The command prompt should change to something like this:

root@1b3ec4621737:/#

Now you can run any command and utility that you use on Ubuntu. It’s all safe and contained. You can run all the experiments and tests you want on that Ubuntu. Once you are done testing, you can nuke the image and download a new one. There is no system overhead that you would get with a virtual machine.

You can exit that container by running the exit command:

$ exit

Now let’s say you want to install Nginx on your system. Run search to find the desired image:

$ docker search nginx

aizMFFysICAEsgDDYrsrlqwoCgGbWVHtcOzgV9mA

As you can see, there are many images of Nginx on DockerHub. Why? Because anyone can publish an image. Various images are optimized for different projects, so you can choose the appropriate image. You just need to install the appropriate image for your use-case.

Let’s say you want to pull Bitnami’s Nginx container:

$ docker pull bitnami/nginx

Now run it with:

$ docker run -it bitnami/nginx

How to publish images to Docker Hub?

Previously, we learned how to create a Docker image, and we can easily publish that image to DockerHub. First, you need to log into DockerHub. If you don’t already have an account, please create one. Then, you can open terminal app and log in:

$ docker login --username=<USERNAME>

Replace <USERNAME> with the name of your username for Docker Hub. In my case it’s arnieswap:

$ docker login --username=arnieswap>

Enter the password, and you are logged in. Now run the docker images command to get the ID of the image that you created last time.

$ docker images

tW1jDOugkX7J2FfyFyToM6B8m5OYFwMba-Ag5aez

Now, suppose you want to push the ng image to DockerHub. First, we need to tag that image (learn more about tags):

$ docker tag e7083fd898c7 arnieswap/my_repo:testing

Now push that image:

$ docker push arnieswap/my_repo

The push refers to repository [docker.io/arnieswap/my_repo]

12628b20827e: Pushed

8600ee70176b: Mounted from library/ubuntu

2bbb3cec611d: Mounted from library/ubuntu

d2bb1fc88136: Mounted from library/ubuntu

a6a01ad8b53f: Mounted from library/ubuntu

833649a3e04c: Mounted from library/ubuntu

testing: digest: sha256:286cb866f34a2aa85c9fd810ac2cedd87699c02731db1b8ca1cfad16ef17c146 size: 1569

Eureka! Your image is being uploaded. Once finished, open DockerHub, log into your account, and you can see your very first Docker image. Now anyone can deploy your image. It’s the easiest and fastest way to develop and distribute software. Whenever you update the image, users can simply run:

$ docker run arnieswap/my_repo

Now you know why people love Docker containers. They solve many problems that traditional workloads face and allow you develop, test, and deploy applications in no time.  And, by following the steps in this series, you can try them out for yourself.

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.