Category Archives: Tutoriale Linux

Ubuntu 17.10 (Artful Aardvark) Released and Download links Included


Codenamed “Artful Aardvark”, Ubuntu 17.10 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technology
into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. As always, the team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features
and fixing bugs.

Under the hood, there have been updates to many core packages, including a new 4.13-based kernel, glibc 2.26, gcc 7.2, and much more.

Ubuntu Desktop has had a major overhaul, with the switch from Unity as our default desktop to GNOME3 and gnome-shell. Along with that, there
are the usual incremental improvements, with newer versions of GTK and Qt, and updates to major packages like Firefox and LibreOffice.

Ubuntu Server 17.10 includes the Pike release of OpenStack, alongside deployment and management tools that save devops teams time when
deploying distributed applications — whether on private clouds, public clouds, x86, ARM, or POWER servers, z System mainframes, or on developer
laptops. Several key server technologies, from MAAS to juju, have been updated to new upstream versions with a variety of new features.

Ubuntu 17.10 Download Links

You can download ISOs and flashable images from:

http://releases.ubuntu.com/17.10/ (Ubuntu Desktop and Server)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/releases/17.10/release/ (Less Popular Ubuntu Images)
http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/daily/server/artful/current/ (Ubuntu Cloud Images)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/netboot/17.10/ (Ubuntu Netboot)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/kubuntu/releases/17.10/release/ (Kubuntu)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/lubuntu/releases/17.10/release/ (Lubuntu and Lubuntu Alternate)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-budgie/releases/17.10/release/ (Ubuntu Budgie)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntukylin/releases/17.10/release/ (Ubuntu Kylin)
https://ubuntu-mate.org/download/ (Ubuntu MATE)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntustudio/releases/17.10/release/ (Ubuntu Studio)
http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/xubuntu/releases/17.10/release/ (Xubuntu)

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Upgrade Ubuntu 17.04 to Ubuntu 17.10 (Desktop/Server)


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Codenamed “Artful Aardvark”, Ubuntu 17.10 continues Ubuntu’s proud tradition of integrating the latest and greatest open source technology
into a high-quality, easy-to-use Linux distribution. As always, the team has been hard at work through this cycle, introducing new features
and fixing bugs.Under the hood, there have been updates to many core packages, including a new 4.13-based kernel, glibc 2.26, gcc 7.2, and much more.

Upgrade ubuntu desktop 17.04 to 17.10

To upgrade on a desktop system:

Open the “Software & Updates” Setting in System Settings.

Select the 3rd Tab called “Updates”.

Set the “Notify me of a new Ubuntu version” dropdown menu to “For any new version”.

Press Alt+F2 and type in “update-manager -c” (without the quotes) into the command box.

Update Manager should open up and tell you: New distribution release ‘17.10′ is available.

If not you can also use “/usr/lib/ubuntu-release-upgrader/check-new-release-gtk”

Click Upgrade and follow the on-screen instructions.

Upgrade ubuntu server 17.04 to 17.10

To upgrade on a server system:

Install the update-manager-core package if it is not already installed.

Make sure the Prompt line in /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades is set to normal.

Launch the upgrade tool with the command sudo do-release-upgrade.

Follow the on-screen instructions.

Note that the server upgrade will use GNU screen and automatically re-attach in case of dropped connection problems.

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3 Tools to Help You Remember Linux Commands | Linux.com


The Linux desktop has come a very long way from its humble beginnings. Back in my early days of using Linux, knowledge of the command line was essential—even for the desktop. That’s no longer true. Many users might never touch the command line. For Linux system administrators, however, that’s not the case. In fact, for any Linux admin (be it server or desktop), the command line is a requirement. From managing networks, to security, to application and server settings—there’s nothing like the power of the good ol’ command line.

But, the thing is… there are a lot of commands to be found on a Linux system. Consider /usr/bin alone and you’ll find quite a lot of commands (you can issue ls /usr/bin/ | wc -l to find out exactly how many you have). Of course, these aren’t all user-facing executables, but it gives you a good idea of the scope of Linux commands. On my Elementary OS system, there are 2029 executables within /usr/bin. Even though I will use only a fraction of those commands, how am I supposed to remember even that amount?

Fortunately, there are various tricks and tools you can use, so that you’re not struggling on a daily basis to remember those commands. I want to offer up a few such tips that will go a long way to helping you work with the command line a bit more efficiently (and save a bit of brain power along the way).

We’ll start with a built-in tool and then illustrate two very handy applications that can be installed.

Bash history

You may or may not know this, but Bash (the most popular Linux shell) retains a history of the commands you run. Want to see it in action? There are two ways. Open up a terminal window and tap the Up arrow key. You should see commands appear, one by one. Once you find the command you’re looking for, you can either use it as is, by hitting the Enter key, or modify it and then execute with the Enter key.

This is a great way to re-run (or modify and run) a command you’ve previously issued. I use this Linux feature regularly. It not only saves me from having to remember the minutiae of a command, it also saves me from having to type out the same command over and over.

Speaking of the Bash history, if you issue the command history, you will be presented with a listing of commands you have run in the past (Figure 1).

The number of commands your Bash history holds is configured within the ~/.bashrc file. In that file, you’ll find two lines:

HISTSIZE=1000

HISTFILESIZE=2000

HISTSIZE is the maximum number of commands to remember on the history list, whereas HISTFILESIZE is the maximum number of lines contained in the history file.

Clearly, by default, Bash will retain 1000 commands in your history. That’s a lot. For some, this is considered an issue of security. If you’re concerned about that, you can shrink the number to whatever gives you the best ratio of security to practicality. If you don’t want Bash to remember your history, set HISTSIZE to 0.

If you make any changes to the ~/.bashrc file, make sure to log out and log back in (otherwise the changes won’t take effect).

Apropos

This is the first of two tools that can be installed to assist you in recalling Linux commands. Apropos is able to search the Linux man pages to help you find the command you’re looking for. Say, for instance, you don’t remember which firewall tool your distribution uses. You could type apropos “firewall” and the tool would return any related command (Figure 2).

What if you needed a command to work with a directory, but had no idea what command was required? Type apropos “directory” to see every command that contains the word “directory” in its man page (Figure 3).

The apropos tool is installed, by default, on nearly every Linux distribution.

Fish

There’s another tool that does a great job of helping you recall commands. Fish is a command line shell for Linux, Unix, and Mac OS that has a few nifty tricks up its sleeve:

  • Autosuggestions

  • VGA Color

  • Full scriptability

  • Web Based configuration

  • Man Page Completions

  • Syntax highlighting

  • And more

The autosuggestions make fish a really helpful tool (especially when you can’t recall those commands).

As you might expect, fish isn’t installed by default. For Ubuntu (and its derivatives), you can install fish with the following commands:

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:fish-shell/release-2

sudo apt update

sudo apt install fish

For the likes of CentOS, fish can be installed like so. Add the repository with the commands:

sudo -s

cd /etc/yum.repos.d/

wget http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/shells:fish:release:2/CentOS_7/shells:fish:release:2.repo

Update the repository list with the commands:

yum repolist

yum update

Install fish with the command:

yum install fish

Using fish isn’t quite as intuitive as you might expect. Remember, fish is a shell, so you have to enter the shell before using the command. From your terminal, issue the command fish and you will find yourself in the newly install shell (Figure 4).

Start typing a command and fish will automatically complete the command. If the suggested command is not the one you’re looking for, hit the Tab key on your keyboard for more suggestions. If it is the command you want, type the right arrow key on your keyboard to complete the command and then hit Enter to execute. When you’re done using fish, type exit to leave that shell.

Fish does quite a bit more, but with regards to helping you remember your commands, the autosuggestions will go a very long way.

Keep learning

There are so many commands to learn on Linux. But don’t think you have to commit every single one of them to memory. Thanks to the Bash history and tools like apropos and fish, you won’t have to strain your memory much to recall the commands you need to get your job done.

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.

What is new in Ubuntu desktop 17.10


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These release notes for Ubuntu 17.10 (Artful Aardvark) provide an overview of the release and document the known issues with Ubuntu 17.10 and its flavors.

Support lifespan

Ubuntu 17.10 will be supported for 9 months until July 2018. If you need Long Term Support, it is recommended you use Ubuntu 16.04 LTS instead.

What is new in Ubuntu desktop 17.10

  • 32-bit installer images are no longer provided for Ubuntu Desktop.
  • The Ubuntu Desktop now uses GNOME instead of Unity.
  • On supported systems, Wayland is now the default display server. The older display server is still available: just choose Ubuntu on Xorg from the cog on the log in screen.
  • GDM has replaced LightDM as the default display manager. The login screen now uses virtual terminal 1 instead of virtual terminal 7.
  • Window control buttons are back on the right for the first time since 2010.
  • Apps provided by GNOME have been updated to 3.26. For more details about GNOME 3.26.
  • Driverless printing support is now available for IPP Everywhere, Apple AirPrint, Wi-Fi Direct, and Mopria devices. Follow the instructions from 17.04.
  • Printer configuration is now done in the Settings app: Choose Devices and then Printers. The tool uses the same algorithms for identifying printers and choosing drivers as the formerly used system-config-printer, and makes full use of driverless printing to support as many printers as possible. Note that some options, like printer sharing, are missing. To reach them, click the Additional Printer Settings… button at the end of the list of available print queues and you get good old system-config-printer.
  • The Amazon app now loads in the default web browser.
  • The default on screen keyboard is GNOME’s Caribou instead of Onboard.
  • Calendar now supports recurring events.
  • LibreOffice has been updated to 5.4.
  • Python 2 is no longer installed by default. Python 3 has been updated to 3.6.
  • The Rhythmbox music player now uses the alternate user interface created by Ubuntu Budgie developer David Mohamed.
  • The Settings app has been redesigned.
  • Simple Scan has a new workflow and design and is now part of core GNOME.
  • System Log has been replaced by Logs, an app to view logs from the systemd journal.
  • The Ubuntu GNOME flavor has been discontinued. If you are using Ubuntu GNOME, you will be upgraded to Ubuntu. Choose the Ubuntu session from the cog on the login screen if you would like the default Ubuntu experience.
  • Install gnome-session and choose GNOME from the cog on the login screen if you would like to try a more upstream version of GNOME. If you’d like to also install more core apps, install the vanilla-gnome-desktop metapackage.

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3 Simple, Excellent Linux Network Monitors | Linux.com


You can learn an amazing amount of information about your network connections with these three glorious Linux networking commands. iftop tracks network connections by process number, Nethogs quickly reveals what is hogging your bandwidth, and vnstat runs as a nice lightweight daemon to record your usage over time.

iftop

The excellent iftop listens to the network interface that you specify, and displays connections in a top-style interface.

This is a great little tool for quickly identifying hogs, measuring speed, and also to maintain a running total of your network traffic. It is rather surprising to see how much bandwidth we use, especially for us old people who remember the days of telephone land lines, modems, screaming kilobits of speed, and real live bauds. We abandoned bauds a long time ago in favor of bit rates. Baud measures signal changes, which sometimes were the same as bit rates, but mostly not.

If you have just one network interface, run iftop with no options. iftop requires root permissions:

$ sudo iftop

When you have more than one, specify the interface you want to monitor:

$ sudo iftop -i wlan0

Just like top, you can change the display options while it is running.

  • h toggles the help screen.
  • n toggles name resolution.
  • s toggles source host display, and d toggles the destination hosts.
  • s toggles port numbers.
  • N toggles port resolution; to see all port numbers toggle resolution off.
  • t toggles the text interface. The default display requires ncurses. I think the text display is more readable and better-organized (Figure 1).
  • p pauses the display.
  • q quits the program.

When you toggle the display options, iftop continues to measure all traffic. You can also select a single host to monitor. You need the host’s IP address and netmask. I was curious how much of a load Pandora put on my sad little meager bandwidth cap, so first I used dig to find their IP address:

$ dig A pandora.com
[...]
;; ANSWER SECTION:
pandora.com.            267     IN      A       208.85.40.20
pandora.com.            267     IN      A       208.85.40.50

What’s the netmask? ipcalc tells us:

$ ipcalc -b 208.85.40.20
Address:   208.85.40.20   
Netmask:   255.255.255.0 = 24
Wildcard:  0.0.0.255  
=>
Network:   208.85.40.0/24 

Now feed the address and netmask to iftop:

$ sudo iftop -F 208.85.40.20/24 -i wlan0

Is that not seriously groovy? I was surprised to learn that Pandora is easy on my precious bits, using around 500Kb per hour. And, like most streaming services, Pandora’s traffic comes in spurts and relies on caching to smooth out the lumps and bumps.

You can do the same with IPv6 addresses, using the -G option. Consult the fine man page to learn the rest of iftop’s features, including customizing your default options with a personal configuration file, and applying custom filters (see PCAP-FILTER for a filter reference).

Nethogs

When you want to quickly learn who is sucking up your bandwidth, Nethogs is fast and easy. Run it as root and specify the interface to listen on. It displays the hoggy application and the process number, so that you may kill it if you so desire:

$ sudo nethogs wlan0

NetHogs version 0.8.1

PID USER   PROGRAM              DEV    SENT   RECEIVED       
7690 carla /usr/lib/firefox     wlan0 12.494 556.580 KB/sec
5648 carla .../chromium-browser wlan0  0.052   0.038 KB/sec
TOTAL                                 12.546 556.618 KB/sec 

Nethogs has few options: cycling between kb/s, kb, b, and mb, sorting by received or sent packets, and adjusting the delay between refreshes. See man nethogs, or run nethogs -h.

vnstat

vnstat is the easiest network data collector to use. It is lightweight and does not need root permissions. It runs as a daemon and records your network statistics over time. The vnstat command displays the accumulated data:

$ vnstat -i wlan0
Database updated: Tue Oct 17 08:36:38 2017

   wlan0 since 10/17/2017

          rx:  45.27 MiB      tx:  3.77 MiB      total:  49.04 MiB

   monthly
                     rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
       Oct '17     45.27 MiB |    3.77 MiB |   49.04 MiB |    0.28 kbit/s
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     estimated        85 MiB |       5 MiB |      90 MiB |

   daily
                     rx      |     tx      |    total    |   avg. rate
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
         today     45.27 MiB |    3.77 MiB |   49.04 MiB |   12.96 kbit/s
     ------------------------+-------------+-------------+---------------
     estimated       125 MiB |       8 MiB |     133 MiB |

By default it displays all network interfaces. Use the -i option to select a single interface. Merge the data of multiple interfaces this way:

$ vnstat -i wlan0+eth0+eth1

You can filter the display in several ways:

  • -h displays statistics by hours.
  • -d displays statistics by days.
  • -w and -m displays statistics by weeks and months.
  • Watch live updates with the -l option.

This command deletes the database for wlan1 and stops watching it:

$ vnstat -i wlan1 --delete

This command creates an alias for a network interface. This example uses one of the weird interface names from Ubuntu 16.04:

$ vnstat -u -i enp0s25 --nick eth0

By default vnstat monitors eth0. You can change this in /etc/vnstat.conf, or create your own personal configuration file in your home directory. See man vnstat for a complete reference.

You can also install vnstati to create simple, colored graphs (Figure 2):

$ vnstati -s -i wlx7cdd90a0a1c2 -o vnstat.png

See man vnstati for complete options.

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.