Monthly Archives: May 2018

Linux Foundation LFCE: Hugues Clouâtre |

The Linux Foundation offers many resources for developers, users, and administrators of Linux systems. One of the most important offerings is the Linux Certification Program, which is designed to help you differentiate yourself in a job market that’s hungry for your skills.

How well does the certification prepare you for the real world? To help illustrate that, this series features some of those who have recently passed the certification examinations. These testimonials should serve to help you decide if either Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) or Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE) certification is right for you. In this article, we talk with recently certified LFCE Hugues Clouâtre. How did you become interested in Linux and open source?

Hugues Clouâtre: I started using Linux and open source software professionally at the beginning of my IT career while attending university. I found the simplicity and flexibility of Linux quite interesting, especially compared to the mainstream operating systems at that time (2004). Red Hat and Debian were the first Linux distributions I used in a business environment. Linux gives you the freedom to experiment — it got me interested right away. What Linux Foundation course did you achieve certification in? Why did you select that particular course?

Clouâtre: I successfully passed the LFCE certification. Having used Linux professionally for over a decade, I was confident in my Linux skills and thought LFCE would be a great achievement. The hands-on exam is indeed challenging. A vast number of domains and competencies are covered. The LFCE exam requires serious preparation and study, even for the most proficient Linux professional. It is a rewarding experience from which you learn a lot. What are your career goals? How do you see Linux Foundation certification helping you achieve those goals and benefiting your career?

Clouâtre: I’d like to become Chief Information Officer (CIO). Having an extended technical expertise is a crucial asset for a career in IT, regardless of your role. You have to stay curious: learning is a continuous process. Knowledge, experience and professional certifications certainly help making the right decisions. As Linux is the foundation for many enterprise software, owning the LFCE certification is a great strength. It is the ultimate proof that you’ve mastered this technology. You also get a head start on learning other technologies that rely on Linux such as Kubernetes or OpenStack. What other hobbies or projects are you involved in? Do you participate in any open source projects at this time?

Clouâtre: I love experimenting with new technologies and software. Automation, orchestration, containerization and serverless applications are examples of interesting and upcoming trends. I like to explore new possibilities: analyze, make it work, simplify, optimize, standardize, and document. I did make contributions in the open source community, though somewhat less in the recent years as my schedule is less flexible than it was. Do you plan to take future Linux Foundation courses? If so, which ones?

Clouâtre: I am already subscribed to the Certified Kubernetes Administrator course. I plan to achieve the certification in the coming months. Kubernetes is rapidly becoming ubiquitous in IT operations and software development. I also carry significant interest in cloud technologies, security and compliance. In what ways do you think the certification will help you as a systems administrator in today’s market?

Clouâtre: I currently work as an IT Director. Having technical skills and hands-on abilities always help in IT, whatever your position is. Owning an advanced certification like LFCE is a big plus, as it aligns your methods and procedures with the industry standards. What Linux distribution do you prefer and why?

Clouâtre: I try to stay neutral and avoid preferences. To like or dislike can sometimes cloud your judgement. The best product for a given task may be one you dislike for reasons that are irrelevant for this particular use case. There are always pros and cons. Alpine Linux is particularly suited to build containers, Debian will give you great flexibility on multiple architectures, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers technical support and services.

The first Linux distribution I used extensively is Debian (Woody at that time), so I always feel at home with it. These days I also use Ubuntu, Red Hat, CoreOS, Atomic, and Alpine regularly. Are you currently working as a Linux systems administrator? If so, what role does Linux play?

Clouâtre: I’m the IT Director at Imagia Cybernetics, a healthcare artificial intelligence company. We use Linux and open source software profusely, as most artificial intelligence (AI) stacks are based on Linux. Having an advanced Linux expertise is essential for my role as head of IT. Where do you see the Linux job market growing the most in the coming years?

Clouâtre: Cloud computing and clusters are becoming more and more important for any type of workloads. Having a thorough knowledge of containers (Docker), cluster management (Kubernetes) and automation (Ansible) software remains essential for many jobs in operations and development. Managed cloud services (such as AWS, GCP and Azure) are also growing at a fast pace, so it’s critical to be familiar with them. What advice would you give those considering certification?

Clouâtre: To get started, follow a course like Linux Networking and Administration (LFS211). Read the domains and competencies of both LFCS and LFCE. Practice every single one of them several times. All those areas of expertise should become natural to the point that you immediately know what to do, without searching Google or the manuals. Don’t forget that you are not allowed any material during the exam, besides the command line interface itself.

Get $100 off the most popular Linux Foundation certifications and certification bundles through May 25, 2018. Just use the coupon code CERTSALE18 at checkout to get your discount. Sign up now »  

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.

Read more certification stories:

Linux Foundation LFCS & LFCE: Maja Kraljič

Linux Foundation LFCS: Ahmed Alkabary

Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator: Muneeb Kalathil

Linux Foundation Certified Engineer: Karthikeyan Ramaswamy

Linux Foundation Certified Engineer: Gbenga “Christopher” Adigun

Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator: Gabriel Rojo Argote

Linux Foundation LFCE Georgi Yadkov Shares His Certification Journey

How to Manage Fonts in Linux |

Not only do I write technical documentation, I write novels. And because I’m comfortable with tools like GIMP, I also create my own book covers (and do graphic design for a few clients). That artistic endeavor depends upon a lot of pieces falling into place, including fonts.

Although font rendering has come a long way over the past few years, it continues to be an issue in Linux. If you compare the look of the same fonts on Linux vs. macOS, the difference is stark. This is especially true when you’re staring at a screen all day. But even though the rendering of fonts has yet to find perfection in Linux, one thing that the open source platform does well is allow users to easily manage their fonts. From selecting, adding, scaling, and adjusting, you can work with fonts fairly easily in Linux.

Here, I’ll share some of the tips I’ve depended on over the years to help extend my “font-ability” in Linux. These tips will especially help those who undertake artistic endeavors on the open source platform. Because there are so many desktop interfaces available for Linux (each of which deal with fonts in a different way), when a desktop environment becomes central to the management of fonts, I’ll be focusing primarily on GNOME and KDE.

With that said, let’s get to work.

Adding new fonts

For the longest time, I have been a collector of fonts. Some might say I have a bit of an obsession. And since my early days of using Linux, I’ve always used the same process for adding fonts to my desktops. There are two ways to do this:

Because my desktops never have other users (besides myself), I only ever work with fonts on a per-user basis. However, I will show you how to do both. First, let’s see how to add fonts on a per-user basis. The first thing you must do is find fonts. Both True Type Fonts (TTF) and Open Type Fonts (OTF) can be added. I add fonts manually. Do this is, I create a new hidden directory in ~/ called ~/.fonts. This can be done with the command:

mkdir ~/.fonts

With that folder created, I then move all of my TTF and OTF files into the directory. That’s it. Every font you add into that directory will now be available for use to your installed apps. But remember, those fonts will only be available to that one user.

If you want to make that collection of fonts available to all, here’s what you do:

  1. Open up a terminal window.

  2. Change into the directory housing all of your fonts.

  3. Copy all of those fonts with the commands sudo cp *.ttf *.TTF /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ and sudo cp *.otf *.OTF /usr/share/fonts/opentype

The next time a user logs in, they’ll have access to all those glorious fonts.

GUI Font Managers

There are a few ways to manage your fonts in Linux, via GUI. How it’s done will depend on your desktop environment. Let’s examine KDE first. With the KDE that ships with Kubuntu 18.04, you’ll find a Font Management tool pre-installed. Open that tool and you can easily add, remove, enable, and disable fonts (as well as get information about all of the installed fonts. This tool also makes it easy for you to add and remove fonts for personal and system-wide use. Let’s say you want to add a particular font for personal usage. To do this, download your font and then open up the Font Management tool. In this tool (Figure 1), click on Personal Fonts and then click the + Add button.

Navigate to the location of your fonts, select them, and click Open. Your fonts will then be added to the Personal section and are immediately available for you to use (Figure 2).

To do the same thing in GNOME requires the installation of an application. Open up either GNOME Software or Ubuntu Software (depending upon the distribution you’re using) and search for Font Manager. Select Font Manager and then click the Install button. Once the software is installed, launch it from the desktop menu. With the tool open, let’s install fonts on a per-user basis. Here’s how:

  1. Select User from the left pane (Figure 3).

  2. Click the + button at the top of the window.

  3. Navigate to and select the downloaded fonts.

  4. Click Open.

Tweaking fonts

There are three concepts you must first understand:

  • Font Hinting: The use of mathematical instructions to adjust the display of a font outline so that it lines up with a rasterized grid.

  • Anti-aliasing: The technique used to add greater realism to a digital image by smoothing jagged edges on curved lines and diagonals.

  • Scaling factor: A scalable unit that allows you to multiple the point size of a font. So if you’re font is 12pt and you have an scaling factor of 1, the font size will be 12pt. If your scaling factor is 2, the font size will be 24pt.

Let’s say you’ve installed your fonts, but they don’t look quite as good as you’d like. How do you tweak the appearance of fonts? In both the KDE and GNOME desktops, you can make a few adjustments. One thing to consider with the tweaking of fonts is that taste is very much subjective. You might find yourself having to continually tweak until you get the fonts looking exactly how you like (dictated by your needs and particular taste). Let’s first look at KDE.

Open up the System Settings tool and clock on Fonts. In this section, you can not only change various fonts, you can also enable and configure both anti-aliasing and enable font scaling factor  (Figure 4).

To configure anti-aliasing, select Enabled from the drop-down and then click Configure. In the resulting window (Figure 5), you can configure an exclude range, sub-pixel rendering type, and hinting style.

Once you’ve made your changes, click Apply. Restart any running applications and the new settings will take effect.

To do this in GNOME, you have to have either use Font Manager or GNOME Tweaks installed. For this, GNOME Tweaks is the better tool. If you open the GNOME Dash and cannot find Tweaks installed, open GNOME Software (or Ubuntu Software), and install GNOME Tweaks. Once installed, open it and click on the Fonts section. Here you can configure hinting, anti-aliasing, and scaling factor (Figure 6).

Make your fonts beautiful

And that’s the gist of making your fonts look as beautiful as possible in Linux. You may not see a macOS-like rendering of fonts, but you can certainly improve the look. Finally, the fonts you choose will have a large impact on how things look. Make sure you’re installing clean, well-designed fonts; otherwise, you’re fighting a losing battle.

Step By Step Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver) LAMP Server Setup

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In around 15 minutes, the time it takes to install Ubuntu Server Edition, you can have a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) server up and ready to go. This feature, exclusive to Ubuntu Server Edition, is available at the time of installation.The LAMP option means you don’t have to install and integrate each of the four separate LAMP components, a process which can take hours and requires someone who is skilled in the installation and configuration of the individual applications. Instead, you get increased security, reduced time-to-install, and reduced risk of misconfiguration, all of which results in a lower cost of ownership.Currently this installation provide PostgreSQL database, Mail Server, Open SSH Server,Samba File Server, Print Server, LAMP and DNS options for pre-configured installations, easing the deployment of common server configurations.

Ubuntu 18.04 LAMP server Install the following Versions

Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver)
Apache 2.4.29
Mysql 5.7.21
PHP 7.2.3

First you need to download server version of Ubuntu from here after that create a CD and start booting with the CD Once it starts booting you should see the following screen in this you need to select your language and press enter


Now you need to select “Install Ubuntu Server” and press enter


Select your language and press enter

Select your location and press enter

If you want to try to have your keyboard layout detected by pressing a series of keys you need to select yes option.If you want to choose from a list click no

Select Origin of keyboard and press enter

Select keyboard layout and press enter

Detecting hardware to find CD-ROM Drivers in progress

Loading additional components in progress

Configures the network with DHCP if there is a DHCP server in your network

Enter your server Hostname

You need enter the Full name of the user you want to create for your server in this example i have created ubuntu user select continue and press enter


Enter your user account name here


Entered the password for test user select continue and press enter


Confirm password for test user


If you want to configure encrypted private directory select yes otherwise no and press enter

Configuring clock option

Detecting disks and all other hardware

You have to partition your hard disk in this example i have selected use entire disk option.If you want to do manually you can choose manual option and press enter.Make sure you have swap partition in place

Warning message about data lost on your hard disk

Guided Partitioning

Write the changes to disk here you need to select yes and press enter

Creating ext4 file system in progress

Installing system in progress

Configuring the package manager select continue and press enter

Configuring package mirror this will be related to your country option

Select and install software in progress

Select how do you want to configure automatic update press enter

Now it will start Installing software and here you need to select the server options here i have selected as openssh server and LAMP server installation.

At the time of software installation it will prompt for mysql server root password enter root password of your choice and select continue


Confirm mysql server root password and select continue



Software installation is in progress

Installing GRUB Boot loader in progress

Finishing installation in Progress

Installation complete message here you need to remove your CD select continue and press enter it will reboot your server

After rebooting your server it will prompt for username and password once you logged in you should see similar to the following screen

This will complete the Ubuntu 18.04 ubuntu LAMP Server Installation and your server is ready for installing applications which supports Apache2,Mysql and PHP7.

Configuring Static ip address in Ubuntu 18.04 server

Ubuntu installer has configured our system to get its network settings via DHCP, Now we will change that to a static IP address for this you need to edit

Edit /etc/netplan/01-netcfg.yaml and enter your ip address details (in this example setup I will use the IP address

sudo nano /etc/netplan/01-netcfg.yaml

and enter the following save the file and exit (In vi, ESC, then ZZ to save and exit)

dhcp4: no
dhcp6: no
addresses: []
addresses: [,]

Note:- enp0s3 is network interface name

Now you need to apply the config using netplan

sudo netplan apply

You need to setup manually DNS servers in resolv.conf file when you are not using DHCP.

sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf

You need to add look something like this

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A New CentOS » Linux Magazine

CentOS Release Manager, Karanbir Singh announced the release of CentOS Linux 7 1804, which is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7.5.

CentOS is a community-maintained clone of RHEL, and it is targeted at users who want the functionality of RHEL without the need for Red Hat support. As a result, CentOS is extremely popular among web hosting providers that need thousands of virtual machine to run websites.

As CentOS emerged as a serious threat to RHEL, Red Hat moved swiftly to acquire the project. Many CentOS maintainers joined Red Hat. Since then, CentOS has maintained a measure of independence and continues to be available for free of cost.

Although CentOS is seen as downstream of RHEL, in some cases it also works as an upstream source. “ Developers and end users looking at inspecting and contributing patches to the CentOS Linux distro will find the code hosted at far simpler to work against,” wrote Singh.

Users are urged to upgrade to the latest version of CentOS. “This release supersedes all previously released content for CentOS Linux 7, and therefore we highly encourage all users to upgrade their machines. Information on different upgrade strategies and how to handle stale content is included in the Release Notes,” said Singh.

The system upgrade can be performed with these commands:

$ sudo yum clean all

$ sudo yum upgrade

$ sudo systemctl reboot

Download CentOS at the official download page.

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5 Storage Administrator Survival Tips

IT administration is under siege today. Automation is the buzzword in computer management and that holds true for data storage. The traditional storage admin has to wonder if he or she has is a future in IT or if it’s time to become an Uber driver!

The cloud has precipitated this changing and volatile environment. For large cloud providers that are massively scaled, automation is the only option To compound the storage administrator’s woes, though, the decline of the storage area network (SAN) clearly indicates that traditional skills of LUNs and rebuild windows won’t suffice much longer.

But there’s a huge opportunity in the new storage approaches! We already are seeing a rich ecosystem of new tools and approaches. On the one hand, we have small, but ultra-fast solid-state drive appliances, while an alternative architecture leads us to hyperconverged systems. Around each of these is a constellation of software products to manage and optimize storage operations. All of these provide a place for those admins willing to expand their horizons to find a meaningful co-existence with automation.

My first tip for survival is to make yourself useful to the business. No, that doesn’t mean becoming the go-to man for SANs! Your managers and the CIO all feel that grim reaper too. They’ll want to explore alternatives, so learn enough to test out new storage technologies. You don’t have to be an expert; remember, in the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king! But you have to know enough to be credible. 

The new storage solutions are going to look like Lego parts, with a huge variety of pieces complementing the basic bricks. You’ll need to gain some software skills and learn best practices for putting these pieces together in a way that best fits your company.

With some foresight and willingness to go beyond their comfort zone, storage administrators can weather the rapidly changing IT environment. Read ahead for ideas on how to extend your storage career into the future.

(Image: Igor Drondin/Shutterstock)

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