Monthly Archives: May 2018

Elive Brings Enlightenment to the Linux Desktop | Linux.com


For the longest time, Enlightenment was my Linux desktop of choice. It was incredibly fast, highly configurable, and gorgeous. Since that time, I’ve migrated to desktops that veer toward being simpler, more efficient to work with… but I always consider my years with E16 and E17 with great fondness. Fortunately, at least two outstanding distributions focus on either Enlightenment E17 or a fork of E17. Bodhi Linux is a darling distribution (that I looked at previously) that uses a fork of E17, called Moksha Desktop. The developers of Bodhi have done some remarkable work with Enlightenment, but this article isn’t about Bodhi. Instead, I want to focus on a distribution that uses straight up Enlightenment E17. That distribution of Linux is Elive.

Elive Linux is developed by Samuel F. “Thanatermesis” Baggen, who has done an incredible job of creating this desktop distribution and has done so by relying on the donations of users. This donation-based distribution has frustrated some users (who have grown accustomed to getting their Linux for free). Although Elive is Mr. Baggen’s full-time job, he’ll be releasing version 3.0 for free (to expand the user-base). However, Elive Linux is still a distribution worthy of donation. So if you’re serious about keeping choice alive (especially one that focuses on Enlightenment), consider a donation for the cause.

With that said, let’s take a look at what makes Elive Linux a distribution you might want to make a part of your world.

What is Elive?

For those who are curious, Elive Linux marries Debian with the Enlightenment desktop. But wait, why not just install E17 on Ubuntu and be done with it? Many users don’t want to have to deal with installing such third-party software. On top of that, one of the biggest draws to Elive (besides E17 being a work of art) is that it does a great job of supporting older hardware (thanks to the combination of Debian and Enlightenment). For anyone looking either to support older hardware or to have modern hardware run faster than seems possible (while not sacrificing a gorgeous desktop), Elive is exactly the distribution to choose. Elive also does a great job of simplifying the first steps of using E17, which can be a bit daunting for new users.

Elive was first released on January 24, 2005. It can be installed via a live CD/USB and has a very minimal set of requirements:

  • Beta version: 500 MHz CPU with 256 MB of RAM

  • Stable version: 300 MHz CPU with 128 MB of RAM

  • Older versions: 100 MHz CPU with 64 MB of RAM

Not many modern distributions can top those requirements. But don’t worry, Elive can also be installed on the most modern of hardware. In fact, install Elive on something relatively new and you’ll be amazed at the speed you’ll experience.

Installation

The installation of Elive is as simple as any other modern Linux distributions. You will, however, have to walk through the initial Enlightenment setup, even before reaching the live distribution desktop. This starts with selecting your system default language (Figure 1).

In the next screen, you’ll select the keyboard and Enlightenment. Once you’ve taken care of that, you’ll find yourself on the live desktop screen (Figure 2), where you can click the Install icon (on the bottom shelf) and begin the actual installation process.

After clicking the installation icon, you might find that you are prompted for the installer to be upgraded. OK that and a terminal window will open to take care of the process. After that upgrade, there might be other updates required before the installation can begin. Just make sure you allow all of these necessary updates (which depend on the version you have downloaded for installation). Once that completes, the installation of Elive will finally begin. 

The installer is simple. Click OK from the main window (Figure 3) to begin the process. 

Next, you’ll be prompted to select a hard disk partitioning option. Select Automatic for the easiest installation. After making the selection, click OK. When prompted, click Yes to erase your hard drive, so Elive can be installed. The next prompt (Figure 4), allows you to enable encryption for your disk.

If you enable encryption, you’ll be prompted for an encryption password; type and verify that password to continue.

The installation will continue and end at a window allowing you to select features to be included in your desktop (Figure 5).

The next window allows you to select extra hardware support (Figure 6).

Next, you get to determine what third-party software will be added to the installation (Figure 7).

Finally, you can dictate what Elive will remove from the system, in order to make it even lighter (Figure 8).

You will then be prompted to create a user for the system and then set up sudo rights for that user. After you create that user, a terminal window will open and the system will be installed. During this installation, you may be prompted to answer Yes or No for a question or two. 

Take the time to read through the questions carefully. During this segment of the installation, you’ll also be prompted to give the computer a hostname, and you will eventually be prompted for a reboot.

Upon reboot, you will be asked to select the services you want enabled on your desktop. Quite a few options are available, so look through them carefully and select only the ones you know you’ll need (Figure 9).

One of the nice aspects of Elive is that you don’t have to walk through the E17 first-run wizard, which can be somewhat confusing for new users. Elive makes getting Enlightenment up and running as easy as any desktop environment. On top of that, the default Elive desktop is just as gorgeous as the website proclaims (Figure 10).

Out of the box, Elive includes an outstanding collection of wallpapers and a beautiful default theme (a vast improvement over the standard E17). And, if you include all the third-party applications, you’ll have absolutely everything you need to get your work done … all from within a screaming-fast desktop operating system that is as reliable as any Linux distribution and even more flexible than most.

I will give you a word of warning. Once you start toying with Elive (configuring and theming), making this desktop operating system even more beautiful might well become an obsession.

If you like a lightning fast distribution with a Debian base, you seriously cannot go wrong with Elive.

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.

How to Run Your Own Git Server | Linux.com


Manage your code on your own server by running a bare, basic Git server or via the GitLab GUI tool.

Learn how to set up your own Git server in this tutorial from our archives.

Git is a versioning system developed by Linus Torvalds, that is used by millions of users around the globe. Companies like GitHub offer code hosting services based on Git. According to reports, GitHub, a code hosting site, is the world’s largest code hosting service. The company claims that there are 9.2M people collaborating right now across 21.8M repositories on GitHub. Big companies are now moving to GitHub. Even Google, the search engine giant, is shutting it’s own Google Code and moving to GitHub.

Run your own Git server

GitHub is a great service, however there are some limitations and restrictions, especially if you are an individual or a small player. One of the limitations of GitHub is that the free service doesn’t allow private hosting of the code. You have to pay a monthly fee of $7 to host 5 private repositories, and the expenses go up with more repos.

In cases like these or when you want more control, the best path is to run Git on your own server. Not only do you save costs, you also have more control over your server. In most cases a majority of advanced Linux users already have their own servers and pushing Git on those servers is like ‘free as in beer’.

In this tutorial we are going to talk about two methods of managing your code on your own server. One is running a bare, basic Git server and and the second one is via a GUI tool called GitLab. For this tutorial I used a fully patched Ubuntu 14.04 LTS server running on a VPS.

Install Git on your server

In this tutorial we are considering a use-case where we have a remote server and a local server and we will work between these machines. For the sake of simplicity we will call them remote-server and local-server.

First, install Git on both machines. You can install Git from the packages already available via the repos or your distros, or you can do it manually. In this article we will use the simpler method:

sudo apt-get install git-core

Then add a user for Git.

sudo useradd git
passwd git

In order to ease access to the server let’s set-up a password-less ssh login. First create ssh keys on your local machine:

ssh-keygen -t rsa

It will ask you to provide the location for storing the key, just hit Enter to use the default location. The second question will be to provide it with a pass phrase which will be needed to access the remote server. It generates two keys – a public key and a private key. Note down the location of the public key which you will need in the next step.

Now you have to copy these keys to the server so that the two machines can talk to each other. Run the following command on your local machine:

cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh git@remote-server "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && cat >>  ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"

Now ssh into the server and create a project directory for Git. You can use the desired path for the repo.

git@server:~ $ mkdir -p /home/swapnil/project-1.git

Then change to this directory:

cd /home/swapnil/project-1.git

Then create an empty repo:

git init --bare
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/swapnil/project-1.git

We now need to create a Git repo on the local machine.

mkdir -p /home/swapnil/git/project

And change to this directory:

cd /home/swapnil/git/project

Now create the files that you need for the project in this directory. Stay in this directory and initiate git:

git init 
Initialized empty Git repository in /home/swapnil/git/project

Now add files to the repo:

git add .

Now every time you add a file or make changes you have to run the add command above. You also need to write a commit message with every change in a file. The commit message basically tells what changes were made.

git commit -m "message" -a
[master (root-commit) 57331ee] message
 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 GoT.txt
 create mode 100644 writing.txt

In this case I had a file called GoT (Game of Thrones review) and I made some changes, so when I ran the command it specified that changes were made to the file. In the above command ‘-a’ option means commits for all files in the repo. If you made changes to only one you can specify the name of that file instead of using ‘-a’.

An example:

git commit -m "message" GoT.txt
[master e517b10] message
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)

Until now we have been working on the local server. Now we have to push these changes to the server so the work is accessible over the Internet and you can collaborate with other team members.

git remote add origin ssh://git@remote-server/repo-<wbr< a="">>path-on-server..git

Now you can push or pull changes between the server and local machine using the ‘push’ or ‘pull’ option:

git push origin master

If there are other team members who want to work with the project they need to clone the repo on the server to their local machine:

git clone git@remote-server:/home/swapnil/project.git

Here /home/swapnil/project.git is the project path on the remote server, exchange the values for your own server.

Then change directory on the local machine (exchange project with the name of project on your server):

cd /project

Now they can edit files, write commit change messages and then push them to the server:

git commit -m 'corrections in GoT.txt story' -a
And then push changes:
git push origin master

I assume this is enough for a new user to get started with Git on their own servers. If you are looking for some GUI tools to manage changes on local machines, you can use GUI tools such as QGit or GitK for Linux.

QGit

Using GitLab

This was a pure command line solution for project owner and collaborator. It’s certainly not as easy as using GitHub. Unfortunately, while GitHub is the world’s largest code hosting service; its own software is not available for others to use. It’s not open source so you can’t grab the source code and compile your own GitHub. Unlike WordPress or Drupal you can’t download GitHub and run it on your own servers.

As usual in the open source world there is no end to the options. GitLab is a nifty project which does exactly that. It’s an open source project which allows users to run a project management system similar to GitHub on their own servers.

You can use GitLab to run a service similar to GitHub for your team members or your company. You can use GitLab to work on private projects before releasing them for public contributions.

GitLab employs the traditional Open Source business model. They have two products: free of cost open source software, which users can install on their own servers, and a hosted service similar to GitHub.

The downloadable version has two editions – the free of cost community edition and the paid enterprise edition. The enterprise edition is based on the community edition but comes with additional features targeted at enterprise customers. It’s more or less similar to what WordPress.org or WordPress.com offer.

The community edition is highly scalable and can support 25,000 users on a single server or cluster. Some of the features of GitLab include: Git repository management, code reviews, issue tracking, activity feeds, and wikis. It comes with GitLab CI for continuous integration and delivery.

Many VPS providers such as Digital Ocean offer GitLab droplets for users. If you want to run it on your own server, you can install it manually. GitLab offers an Omnibus package for different operating systems. Before we install GitLab, you may want to configure an SMTP email server so that GitLab can push emails as and when needed. They recommend Postfix. So, install Postfix on your server:

sudo apt-get install postfix

During installation of Postfix it will ask you some questions; don’t skip them. If you did miss it you can always re-configure it using this command:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure postfix

When you run this command choose “Internet Site” and provide the email ID for the domain which will be used by Gitlab.

In my case I provided it with:

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
 

Use Tab and create a username for postfix. The Next page will ask you to provide a destination for mail.

In the rest of the steps, use the default options. Once Postfix is installed and configured, let’s move on to install GitLab.

Download the packages using wget (replace the download link with the latest packages from here) :

wget https://downloads-packages.s3.amazonaws.com/ubuntu-14.04/gitlab_7.9.4-omnibus.1-1_amd64.deb

Then install the package:

sudo dpkg -i gitlab_7.9.4-omnibus.1-1_amd64.deb

Now it’s time to configure and start GitLabs.

sudo gitlab-ctl reconfigure

You now need to configure the domain name in the configuration file so you can access GitLab. Open the file.

nano /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb

In this file edit the ‘external_url’ and give the server domain. Save the file and then open the newly created GitLab site from a web browser.

GitLab 1

By default it creates ‘root’ as the system admin and uses ‘5iveL!fe’ as the password. Log into the GitLab site and then change the password.

GitLab 2

Once the password is changed, log into the site and start managing your project.

GitLab manage project page

GitLab is overflowing with features and options. I will borrow popular lines from the movie, The Matrix: “Unfortunately, no one can be told what all GitLab can do. You have to try it for yourself.”

Cloud Storage Adoption Soars in the Workplace


Despite lingering cloud security fears, businesses are adopting cloud storage and file-sharing services at a rapid clip, according to new research from Spiceworks.

Eighty percent of the 544 organizations Spiceworks polled reported using cloud storage services, and another 16% say they plan to deploy them within the next two years. A similar study by the company in 2016 found that 53% of businesses were using these services.

Even though cloud storage and file-sharing services are becoming pervasive in the workplace, 25% of survey respondents believe their data in the cloud is not at all secure, or only somewhat secure. Sixteen percent of those polled said their organization has experienced one or more security incidents, including stolen credentials or data theft, via their cloud storage service in the last 12 months.

To mitigate the risks, many organizations have implemented various security measures, Spiceworks found. Fifty-seven percent of survey participants said their organizations only allow employees to use IT-approved cloud storage services. Fifty-five percent enforce user access controls and 48% conduct employee security training.

Less common security controls for cloud storage services include multi-factor authentication (28%) and encrypting data in transit (26%), according to the research.

Microsoft OneDrive takes lead

The Spiceworks study also polled IT pros on their choice of cloud storage services vendor and found that Microsoft OneDrive has vaulted ahead of the competition in both the enterprise and the SMB markets. Among businesses with more than 1,000 employees, OneDrive’s adoption rate was 59%, much higher than GoogleDrive (29%) and Dropbox (25%). Among small and midsize businesses with 100 to 999 employees, the adoption rate for OneDrive was 54% compared to 35% using Dropbox and 33% using Google Drive.

“It’s evident that in a matter of two years, OneDrive has stolen the top spot from Dropbox as the most commonly used cloud storage service in the business environment,” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst at Spiceworks, wrote in a  blog post.

In 2016, Spiceworks research found that 33% of organizations were using Dropbox, 31% were using OneDrive, and 27% were using Google Drive. An additional 18% of businesses planned to adopt OneDrive.

Tsai surmised that OneDrive’s popularity is connected to the fact that it’s bundled with an Office 365 subscription, which many organizations have. A separate Spiceworks study found that more than 50% of companies subscribe to Office 365.

Security edges reliability

When buying cloud storage services, IT buyers put a priority on security, according to Spiceworks. Ninety-seven percent of survey respondents ranked it as an important or extremely important factor, followed closely by reliability at 96%.

Interestingly, 39% of those polled said security is the attribute they most closely associate with OneDrive, compared to Google Drive (28%) and Dropbox (19%). In terms of reliability and cost effectiveness, Google Drive led the pack. Dropbox got the highest ranking for ease of use.

According to the Spiceworks report, Dropbox also wins out when it comes to cloud storage services unsanctioned by the IT department.

The Spiceworks survey polled IT pros in the company’s network; they represent a variety of company sizes and industries.



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Linux Foundation LFCE: Hugues Clouâtre | Linux.com


The Linux Foundation offers many resources for developers, users, and administrators of Linux systems. One of the most important offerings is the Linux Certification Program, which is designed to help you differentiate yourself in a job market that’s hungry for your skills.

How well does the certification prepare you for the real world? To help illustrate that, this series features some of those who have recently passed the certification examinations. These testimonials should serve to help you decide if either Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) or Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE) certification is right for you. In this article, we talk with recently certified LFCE Hugues Clouâtre.

Linux.com: How did you become interested in Linux and open source?

Hugues Clouâtre: I started using Linux and open source software professionally at the beginning of my IT career while attending university. I found the simplicity and flexibility of Linux quite interesting, especially compared to the mainstream operating systems at that time (2004). Red Hat and Debian were the first Linux distributions I used in a business environment. Linux gives you the freedom to experiment — it got me interested right away.

Linux.com: What Linux Foundation course did you achieve certification in? Why did you select that particular course?

Clouâtre: I successfully passed the LFCE certification. Having used Linux professionally for over a decade, I was confident in my Linux skills and thought LFCE would be a great achievement. The hands-on exam is indeed challenging. A vast number of domains and competencies are covered. The LFCE exam requires serious preparation and study, even for the most proficient Linux professional. It is a rewarding experience from which you learn a lot.

Linux.com: What are your career goals? How do you see Linux Foundation certification helping you achieve those goals and benefiting your career?

Clouâtre: I’d like to become Chief Information Officer (CIO). Having an extended technical expertise is a crucial asset for a career in IT, regardless of your role. You have to stay curious: learning is a continuous process. Knowledge, experience and professional certifications certainly help making the right decisions. As Linux is the foundation for many enterprise software, owning the LFCE certification is a great strength. It is the ultimate proof that you’ve mastered this technology. You also get a head start on learning other technologies that rely on Linux such as Kubernetes or OpenStack.

Linux.com: What other hobbies or projects are you involved in? Do you participate in any open source projects at this time?

Clouâtre: I love experimenting with new technologies and software. Automation, orchestration, containerization and serverless applications are examples of interesting and upcoming trends. I like to explore new possibilities: analyze, make it work, simplify, optimize, standardize, and document. I did make contributions in the open source community, though somewhat less in the recent years as my schedule is less flexible than it was.

Linux.com: Do you plan to take future Linux Foundation courses? If so, which ones?

Clouâtre: I am already subscribed to the Certified Kubernetes Administrator course. I plan to achieve the certification in the coming months. Kubernetes is rapidly becoming ubiquitous in IT operations and software development. I also carry significant interest in cloud technologies, security and compliance.

Linux.com: In what ways do you think the certification will help you as a systems administrator in today’s market?

Clouâtre: I currently work as an IT Director. Having technical skills and hands-on abilities always help in IT, whatever your position is. Owning an advanced certification like LFCE is a big plus, as it aligns your methods and procedures with the industry standards.

Linux.com: What Linux distribution do you prefer and why?

Clouâtre: I try to stay neutral and avoid preferences. To like or dislike can sometimes cloud your judgement. The best product for a given task may be one you dislike for reasons that are irrelevant for this particular use case. There are always pros and cons. Alpine Linux is particularly suited to build containers, Debian will give you great flexibility on multiple architectures, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers technical support and services.

The first Linux distribution I used extensively is Debian (Woody at that time), so I always feel at home with it. These days I also use Ubuntu, Red Hat, CoreOS, Atomic, and Alpine regularly.

Linux.com: Are you currently working as a Linux systems administrator? If so, what role does Linux play?

Clouâtre: I’m the IT Director at Imagia Cybernetics, a healthcare artificial intelligence company. We use Linux and open source software profusely, as most artificial intelligence (AI) stacks are based on Linux. Having an advanced Linux expertise is essential for my role as head of IT.

Linux.com: Where do you see the Linux job market growing the most in the coming years?

Clouâtre: Cloud computing and clusters are becoming more and more important for any type of workloads. Having a thorough knowledge of containers (Docker), cluster management (Kubernetes) and automation (Ansible) software remains essential for many jobs in operations and development. Managed cloud services (such as AWS, GCP and Azure) are also growing at a fast pace, so it’s critical to be familiar with them.

Linux.com: What advice would you give those considering certification?

Clouâtre: To get started, follow a course like Linux Networking and Administration (LFS211). Read the domains and competencies of both LFCS and LFCE. Practice every single one of them several times. All those areas of expertise should become natural to the point that you immediately know what to do, without searching Google or the manuals. Don’t forget that you are not allowed any material during the exam, besides the command line interface itself.

Get $100 off the most popular Linux Foundation certifications and certification bundles through May 25, 2018. Just use the coupon code CERTSALE18 at checkout to get your discount. Sign up now »  

Learn more about Linux through the free “Introduction to Linux” course from The Linux Foundation and edX.

Read more certification stories:

Linux Foundation LFCS & LFCE: Maja Kraljič

Linux Foundation LFCS: Ahmed Alkabary

Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator: Muneeb Kalathil

Linux Foundation Certified Engineer: Karthikeyan Ramaswamy

Linux Foundation Certified Engineer: Gbenga “Christopher” Adigun

Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator: Gabriel Rojo Argote

Linux Foundation LFCE Georgi Yadkov Shares His Certification Journey

How to Manage Fonts in Linux | Linux.com


Not only do I write technical documentation, I write novels. And because I’m comfortable with tools like GIMP, I also create my own book covers (and do graphic design for a few clients). That artistic endeavor depends upon a lot of pieces falling into place, including fonts.

Although font rendering has come a long way over the past few years, it continues to be an issue in Linux. If you compare the look of the same fonts on Linux vs. macOS, the difference is stark. This is especially true when you’re staring at a screen all day. But even though the rendering of fonts has yet to find perfection in Linux, one thing that the open source platform does well is allow users to easily manage their fonts. From selecting, adding, scaling, and adjusting, you can work with fonts fairly easily in Linux.

Here, I’ll share some of the tips I’ve depended on over the years to help extend my “font-ability” in Linux. These tips will especially help those who undertake artistic endeavors on the open source platform. Because there are so many desktop interfaces available for Linux (each of which deal with fonts in a different way), when a desktop environment becomes central to the management of fonts, I’ll be focusing primarily on GNOME and KDE.

With that said, let’s get to work.

Adding new fonts

For the longest time, I have been a collector of fonts. Some might say I have a bit of an obsession. And since my early days of using Linux, I’ve always used the same process for adding fonts to my desktops. There are two ways to do this:

Because my desktops never have other users (besides myself), I only ever work with fonts on a per-user basis. However, I will show you how to do both. First, let’s see how to add fonts on a per-user basis. The first thing you must do is find fonts. Both True Type Fonts (TTF) and Open Type Fonts (OTF) can be added. I add fonts manually. Do this is, I create a new hidden directory in ~/ called ~/.fonts. This can be done with the command:

mkdir ~/.fonts

With that folder created, I then move all of my TTF and OTF files into the directory. That’s it. Every font you add into that directory will now be available for use to your installed apps. But remember, those fonts will only be available to that one user.

If you want to make that collection of fonts available to all, here’s what you do:

  1. Open up a terminal window.

  2. Change into the directory housing all of your fonts.

  3. Copy all of those fonts with the commands sudo cp *.ttf *.TTF /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ and sudo cp *.otf *.OTF /usr/share/fonts/opentype

The next time a user logs in, they’ll have access to all those glorious fonts.

GUI Font Managers

There are a few ways to manage your fonts in Linux, via GUI. How it’s done will depend on your desktop environment. Let’s examine KDE first. With the KDE that ships with Kubuntu 18.04, you’ll find a Font Management tool pre-installed. Open that tool and you can easily add, remove, enable, and disable fonts (as well as get information about all of the installed fonts. This tool also makes it easy for you to add and remove fonts for personal and system-wide use. Let’s say you want to add a particular font for personal usage. To do this, download your font and then open up the Font Management tool. In this tool (Figure 1), click on Personal Fonts and then click the + Add button.

Navigate to the location of your fonts, select them, and click Open. Your fonts will then be added to the Personal section and are immediately available for you to use (Figure 2).

To do the same thing in GNOME requires the installation of an application. Open up either GNOME Software or Ubuntu Software (depending upon the distribution you’re using) and search for Font Manager. Select Font Manager and then click the Install button. Once the software is installed, launch it from the desktop menu. With the tool open, let’s install fonts on a per-user basis. Here’s how:

  1. Select User from the left pane (Figure 3).

  2. Click the + button at the top of the window.

  3. Navigate to and select the downloaded fonts.

  4. Click Open.

Tweaking fonts

There are three concepts you must first understand:

  • Font Hinting: The use of mathematical instructions to adjust the display of a font outline so that it lines up with a rasterized grid.

  • Anti-aliasing: The technique used to add greater realism to a digital image by smoothing jagged edges on curved lines and diagonals.

  • Scaling factor: A scalable unit that allows you to multiple the point size of a font. So if you’re font is 12pt and you have an scaling factor of 1, the font size will be 12pt. If your scaling factor is 2, the font size will be 24pt.

Let’s say you’ve installed your fonts, but they don’t look quite as good as you’d like. How do you tweak the appearance of fonts? In both the KDE and GNOME desktops, you can make a few adjustments. One thing to consider with the tweaking of fonts is that taste is very much subjective. You might find yourself having to continually tweak until you get the fonts looking exactly how you like (dictated by your needs and particular taste). Let’s first look at KDE.

Open up the System Settings tool and clock on Fonts. In this section, you can not only change various fonts, you can also enable and configure both anti-aliasing and enable font scaling factor  (Figure 4).

To configure anti-aliasing, select Enabled from the drop-down and then click Configure. In the resulting window (Figure 5), you can configure an exclude range, sub-pixel rendering type, and hinting style.

Once you’ve made your changes, click Apply. Restart any running applications and the new settings will take effect.

To do this in GNOME, you have to have either use Font Manager or GNOME Tweaks installed. For this, GNOME Tweaks is the better tool. If you open the GNOME Dash and cannot find Tweaks installed, open GNOME Software (or Ubuntu Software), and install GNOME Tweaks. Once installed, open it and click on the Fonts section. Here you can configure hinting, anti-aliasing, and scaling factor (Figure 6).

Make your fonts beautiful

And that’s the gist of making your fonts look as beautiful as possible in Linux. You may not see a macOS-like rendering of fonts, but you can certainly improve the look. Finally, the fonts you choose will have a large impact on how things look. Make sure you’re installing clean, well-designed fonts; otherwise, you’re fighting a losing battle.